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To evaluate the degree of hemolysis in canine packed RBCs at varying catheter sizes and flow rates as determined by RBC count, Hct, hemoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, and phosphorus. This study hypothesized that changes in flow rate and catheter diameter would change the degree of hemolysis.


A fresh unit of canine RBCs.


A fresh unit of purchased canine packed RBCs was run through an IV infusion pump through 5 different catheter sizes (16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 gauge) at 5 different rates (50, 250, 500, 750, and 999 mL/h). Each sample was submitted for a CBC and chemistry, and RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, creatine phosphokinase, and phosphorus were specifically evaluated to assess for the degree of hemolysis.


Compared to the control, flow rate did not significantly affect the degree of hemolysis. Smaller catheter sizes had a significantly increased hemolysis (P < .05) based on variables to evaluate hemolysis (RBC count, Hct, hemoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, and phosphorus). This study’s hypothesis was upheld in association with the catheter diameter but was rejected with flow rate.


Blood transfusions are a common practice in veterinary medicine as treatment of anemia and hemorrhage. Hemolysis was greater when small catheter sizes were used. Larger catheters are recommended when feasible when performing transfusions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate.

SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers.

PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared.

RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research