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  • Author or Editor: Brett A. Dolente x
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Abstract

Objective—To detect subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in horses with colitis and to determine any association between the diagnosis of subclinical DIC and outcome or occurrence of complications in horses with colitis.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—37 horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for treatment of acute colitis.

Procedure—Coagulation profiles were obtained on each horse 0, 24, and 48 hours after admission. Six tests were performed: platelet count, plasma fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin activity, and serum fibrin degradation products concentration.

Results—A clinicopathologic diagnosis of subclinical DIC was made if 3 of the 6 tests had abnormal results at any 1 sample period. No horse had clinical signs of DIC at the time of sampling. Twelve of 37 (32%) horses met the criteria for diagnosis of subclinical DIC within a 1-year period. Outcome was defined as survival or nonsurvival. Five of 12 horses with subclinical DIC and 2 of 25 horses without subclinical DIC did not survive. Crude odds ratio analysis revealed a horse with acute colitis was 8 times as likely to die or be euthanatized if a diagnosis of subclinical DIC was made.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinicopathologic evidence of DIC is common and is significantly associated with a poor outcome in horses with acute colitis. Treatment of subclinical DIC may influence outcome in horses with acute colitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1034–1038)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA), including the effects of EACA on coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Each horse received 3.5 mg of EACA/kg/min for 20 minutes, IV. Plasma EACA concentration was measured before (time 0), during, and after infusion. Coagulation variables and plasma α2-antiplasmin activity were evaluated at time 0 and 4 hours after infusion; viscoelastic properties of clot formation were assessed at time 0 and 0.5, 1, and 4 hours after infusion. Plasma concentration versus time data were evaluated by use of a pharmacokinetic analysis computer program.

Results—Drug disposition was best described by a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase, an elimination half-life of 2.3 hours, and mean residence time of 2.5 ± 0.5 hours. Peak plasma EACA concentration was 462.9 ± 70.1 μg/mL; after the end of the infusion, EACA concentration remained greater than the proposed therapeutic concentration (130 μg/mL) for 1 hour. Compared with findings at 0 minutes, EACA administration resulted in no significant change in plasma α2-antiplasmin activity at 1 or 4 hours after infusion. Thirty minutes after infusion, platelet function was significantly different from that at time 0 and 1 and 4 hours after infusion. The continuous rate infusion that would maintain proposed therapeutic plasma concentrations of EACA was predicted (ie, 3.5 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/min).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that EACA has potential clinical use in horses for which improved clot maintenance is desired.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in hospitalized horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100 control horses.

Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998 were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis. Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis during admission or hospitalization were chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, primary illness, and treatment were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis. For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 16 times those for a similar horse in the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4 times those for a similar horse without large intestinal disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 31 times those for a similar horse not receiving these medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that patient factors, including large intestinal disease, hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia, were associated with development of catheter-associated thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the viability of Saccharomyces boulardii after PO administration in clinically normal horses and its efficacy as a treatment for horses with acute enterocolitis.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—5 clinically normal horses and 14 horses with acute enterocolitis.

Procedure—Feces were collected from 5 clinically normal horses and submitted for microbial culture for 2 days prior to administration of a lyophilized form of S boulardii (25 or 50 g, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days. Feces were collected for microbial culture 5 and 10 days after treament initiation and 10 days after treatment was discontinued. Fourteen horses with acute enterocolitis were randomly allocated to receive a placebo or S boulardii (25 g), PO, every 12 hours for 14 days.

ResultsS boulardii was not detected in feces of clinically normal horses. After administration, yeast survived within the gastroinestinal tract but did not permanently colonize it. In horses with acute enterocolitis, the severity and duration of gastrointestinal tract disease during hospitalization were significantly decreased in horses receiving S boulardii, compared with horses receiving the placebo.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of S boulardii may help decrease the severity and duration of clinical signs in horses with acute enterocolitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:954–959)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association