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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cardiorespiratory effects of abdominal insufflation were evaluated in 8 dogs during isoflurane anesthesia. Each dog was studied 3 times, in 1 of the following orders of insufflation pressures: 10-20-30, 20-30-10, 30-20-10, 10-30-20, 20-10-30, and 30-10-20 mm of Hg. Anesthesia was induced by use of a mask, dogs were intubated, and anesthesia was maintained by isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After instrumentation, baseline values were recorded (time 0), and the abdomen was insufflated with nitrous oxide. Data were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after insufflation. The abdomen was then desufflated, with recording of data continuing at 35 and 40 minutes. Mean arterial pressure increased at 5 minutes during 20 mm of Hg insufflation pressure, and from 20 to 30 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Tidal volume decreased from 5 to 30 minutes during 10 and 20 mm of Hg pressures, and from 5 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Minute ventilation decreased at 10 and 20 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure. End-tidal CO2 concentration increased from 5 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30 mm of Hg pressure. The PaCO2 decreased at 40 minutes during 10 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure, and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Values for pH decreased from 10 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30 mm of Hg pressures. The PaO2 decreased from 20 to 40 minutes during 10 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure, and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Percentage decrease in tidal volume was greater at 5 and 15 minutes with 30 mm of Hg pressure. Differences in percentage increase in end tidal CO2 concentration were observed among the 3 pressures from 5 to 30 minutes. Although significant, these changes do not preclude use of laparoscopy if insufflation pressure > 20 mm of Hg is avoided.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To describe alterations in respiratory and cardiovascular variables during diagnostic thoracoscopy, using bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax.

Animals

7 adult dogs.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized and instrumented for 2 episodes of cardiopulmonary monitoring that were performed at an interval of more than 14 days. The first anesthetic episode served as a control procedure for the thoracoscopy treatment performed during the second anesthetic episode. Multiple cardiopulmonary variables were evaluated by comparing changes from baseline values within treatments and between treatments.

Results

Arterial oxygen tension decreased significantly from baseline values during thoracoscopy but was unchanged during sham treatment. Arterial carbon dioxide tension, clinical shunt fraction, and systemic mean arterial pressure increased during thoracoscopy. In contrast, these variables were unaffected by the sham treatment. Heart rate and cardiac index increased during sham and thoracoscopy treatments; however, the increase was significantly greater during thoracoscopy. Total peripheral vascular resistance significantly decreased from baseline values for both treatments, but the decrease was greater during thoracoscopy. Significant changes were not observed for oxyhemoglobin saturation or pulmonary vascular resistance during either treatment. Dogs recovered without major clinical complications.

Conclusions

Significant changes were found for several cardiopulmonary variables during bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax for diagnostic thoracoscopy of clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Diagnostic thoracoscopy with bilateral hemithorax ventilation and sustained pneumothorax is well tolerated in clinically normal dogs and may provide a diagnostic modality enabling intrathoracic procedures with less morbidity than thoracotomy for dogs with intrathoracic disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1494–1498)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 3 cats and 72 dogs that had a fishhook endoscopically or surgically retrieved from the stomach or esophagus were reviewed. Endoscopic retrieval was successful in 41 of 62 (66%) animals, and retrieval time and hospitalization time for endoscopic retrieval were significantly shorter than times for surgical retrieval. Rate of failure of endoscopic retrieval was higher for animals with treble-barb, rather than single-barb, fishhooks. Whether a fishhook could be successfully retrieved endoscopically was independent of body weight, amount of time the fishhook had been present, location of the hook, and orientation within the esophagus.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether lung biopsy specimens obtained during thoracoscopy, using a commercially available ligature, can provide an adequate amount of tissue for histologic evaluation and to characterize changes in the lungs and thoracic cavity that result from the procedure.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

All dogs underwent 2 anesthetic episodes. The first anesthetic episode was a sham procedure. During the second anesthetic episode, each dog underwent a thoracoscopic procedure to obtain a lung biopsy specimen, using a commercially available ligature. Biopsy specimens were assessed subjectively by means of histologic evaluation. Samples for arterial blood gas analysis were obtained, and thoracic radiography was performed after surgery. Dogs were evaluated daily for 14 days after thoracoscopy and then were euthanatized. Tissues were evaluated grossly and histologically.

Results

Excellent intraoperative visibility and biopsy specimens adequate for histologic evaluation were obtained from all dogs. Significant differences were not found between arterial blood gas values of sham- and thoracoscopy-treated dogs for samples obtained 0.25, 2, and 24 hours after extubation. Examination of thoracic radiographs obtained 2 and 24 hours after thoracoscopy revealed minimal localized pathologic changes. All dogs were clinically normal 24 hours after thoracoscopy, and major postoperative complications were not detected. Gross and histologic findings of specimens obtained during necropsy revealed changes localized to biopsy and trocar sites.

Conclusions

Thoracoscopic placement of ligatures allowed procurement of lung lobe biopsy specimens from clinically normal dogs without complications.

Clinical Relevance

This procedure may provide a safe and minimally invasive means of obtaining lung biopsy specimens from clinically affected dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1499–1502)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify growth and reproductive measurements that can be used to select heifers with the potential to be more reproductively efficient.

SAMPLE

A total of 2,843 heifers consigned to the Georgia Heifer Evaluation and Reproductive Development program between 2012 and 2021 with a mean (min, max) age of heifers at delivery of 347 days (275, 404).

PROCEDURES

Reproductive tract maturity score (RTMS), weight at delivery as a percentage of target breeding weight, hip height 3 to 4 weeks after delivery, and average daily gain during the first 3 to 4 weeks after delivery were evaluated as potential predictors of the variables of interest.

RESULTS

The model-adjusted odds of pregnancy were 1.40 to 1.67 times higher for heifers with an RTMS of 3, 4, or 5 when compared to heifers with an RTMS of 1 or 2. For every 2.5-cm increase in hip height and every 1-month increase in age at the beginning of the breeding period the model-adjusted odds of pregnancy were 1.10 and 1.16 times higher, respectively. The model-adjusted pregnancy hazard rate for heifers with an RTMS of 3, 4, or 5 was 1.19 to 1.25 times higher than that of heifers with an RTMS of 1 or 2. For every 2.5-cm increase in hip height, the model-adjusted hazard rate for pregnancy was 1.04 times greater.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Physical traits related to animal maturity and attainment of early puberty can be used to select heifers that are more likely to become pregnant early in their first breeding season.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association