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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the causes and distribution of lameness in beef and dairy cattle presenting to either a primary care ambulatory or in-house clinical service at a veterinary teaching hospital.

SAMPLE

This retrospective clinical case study was conducted by reviewing hospital admissions of beef and dairy cattle seen by in-house or ambulatory clinicians at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2001 to 2021.

PROCEDURES

Final diagnosis was recorded and, when available, the affected limb, whether a lesion was localized to the digit, and the affected claw were also recorded. Data were stratified by location of initial evaluation (ambulatory vs in hospital), period of presentation, production class, age, sex, and whether the final diagnosis was infectious or noninfectious.

RESULTS

Overall, 2,220 animals met criteria for inclusion in the study. The most common diagnoses were noninfectious in nature and affected a hind limb more often than a forelimb. More than 82% of all cattle had lameness localized to the digit, with the lateral claw being affected more than 80% of the time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Lameness is an important concern from both a humane and economic standpoint. The results of this study will help with the diagnosis and prevention of lameness in beef and dairy cattle of different ages and production classes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Evaluate agreement among the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida obtained by transtracheal wash, nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

ANIMALS

100 Holstein and Holstein-cross bull calves with bovine respiratory disease.

METHODS

Calves > 30 days old with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease were sampled sequentially by nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, transtracheal wash, and then bronchoalveolar lavage. Samples were cultured, and for each antimicrobial, the MIC of 50% and 90% of isolates was calculated, and isolates were categorized as susceptible or not. Categorical discrepancies were recorded. Percent positive agreement and kappa values were calculated between isolates for each of the sampling methods.

RESULTS

Antimicrobial susceptibility varied by pathogen and resistance to enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and spectinomycin was detected. Minor discrepancies were seen in up to 29% of classifications, with enrofloxacin, penicillin, and florfenicol more frequently represented than other drugs. Very major and major discrepancies were seen when comparing florfenicol (1.9%) and tulathromycin (3.8 to 4.9%) across sampling methods. Some variability was seen in agreement for enrofloxacin for several comparisons (8.3 to 18.4%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Susceptibility testing of isolates from 1 location of the respiratory tract can reliably represent susceptibility in other locations. Nevertheless, the potential for imperfect agreement between sampling methods does exist. The level of restraint available, the skill level of the person performing the sampling, the age and size of the animal, disease status, and treatment history all must be factored into which test is most appropriate for a given situation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify growth and reproductive measurements that can be used to select heifers with the potential to be more reproductively efficient.

SAMPLE

A total of 2,843 heifers consigned to the Georgia Heifer Evaluation and Reproductive Development program between 2012 and 2021 with a mean (min, max) age of heifers at delivery of 347 days (275, 404).

PROCEDURES

Reproductive tract maturity score (RTMS), weight at delivery as a percentage of target breeding weight, hip height 3 to 4 weeks after delivery, and average daily gain during the first 3 to 4 weeks after delivery were evaluated as potential predictors of the variables of interest.

RESULTS

The model-adjusted odds of pregnancy were 1.40 to 1.67 times higher for heifers with an RTMS of 3, 4, or 5 when compared to heifers with an RTMS of 1 or 2. For every 2.5-cm increase in hip height and every 1-month increase in age at the beginning of the breeding period the model-adjusted odds of pregnancy were 1.10 and 1.16 times higher, respectively. The model-adjusted pregnancy hazard rate for heifers with an RTMS of 3, 4, or 5 was 1.19 to 1.25 times higher than that of heifers with an RTMS of 1 or 2. For every 2.5-cm increase in hip height, the model-adjusted hazard rate for pregnancy was 1.04 times greater.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Physical traits related to animal maturity and attainment of early puberty can be used to select heifers that are more likely to become pregnant early in their first breeding season.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare signalment of horses with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation (CVM) with that of control horses and to describe results of clinical examination, diagnostic imaging and necropsy findings, and reported outcome in horses with CVM.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—270 horses with CVM and 608 control horses admitted to 6 veterinary hospitals from 1992 through 2007.

Procedures—Medical records of participating hospitals were reviewed to identify horses with CVM (ie, case horses) and contemporaneous control (non-CVM-affected) horses that were admitted for treatment. Signalment was compared between case horses and control horses. Results of clinical examination, laboratory and diagnostic imaging findings, necropsy results, and outcome were assessed for horses with CVM.

Results—Case horses were younger (median age, 2 years) than were control horses (median age, 7 years). Thoroughbreds, warmbloods, and Tennessee Walking Horses were overrepresented in the CVM group. Gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently detected in horses with CVM. Vertebral canal stenosis and articular process osteophytosis were commonly observed at necropsy; agreement between the results of radiographic or myelographic analysis and detection of lesions at necropsy was 65% to 71% and 67% to 78%, respectively. Of 263 horses with CVM for which outcome was recorded, 1 died and 172 (65.4%) were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Odds of a diagnosis of CVM were greater in young horses and horses of specific breeds. Detection of gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently reported in association with CVM. Accurate diagnosis of lesions associated with CVM by use of radiography and myelography can be challenging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:812-822)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association