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SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate effects of a single high dose of gentamicin on neuromuscular function in horses anesthetized with halothane.

Animals

6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure

Halothane-anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and the right hind limb was immobilized in a reusable fiberglass cast fixed to a steel frame. The hoof was attached to a force transducer, and resting tension of 0.93 ± 0.16 kg was maintained. A supramaximal train-of-four stimulus of 2 Hz for a duration of 0.25 millisecond was applied to the superficial peroneal nerve every 20 seconds by a square-wave stimulator. The force of the evoked digital extensor tension was recorded to determine first muscle twitch tension, compared with the baseline value (T1%) and the ratio of the force of the fourth twitch to the first twitch (T4/T1). Data were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after IV administration of vehicle or gentamicin (6 mg/kg of body weight).

Results

There was a significant (P = 0.04) treatment-time interaction for the effect of gentamicin on T1%; T1% associated with vehicle decreased from 100% to 92% during the 60- minute study period, but no decrease was associated with gentamicin. For T4/T1, there was no significant effect of treatment or time or treatment-time interaction between gentamicin and vehicle.

Conclusions

Gentamicin did not cause a decrease in initial muscular strength, nor did it impair the muscles’ ability to sustain strength.

Clinical Relevance

A single high dose of gentamicin does not cause significant neuromuscular blockade when administered alone to healthy horses anesthetized with halothane. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1324–1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the response to various treatments and long-term outcome of foals with tarsal valgus deformities.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

39 foals with tarsal valgus deformities.

Procedure

Data collected from medical records, included signalment, history, reason for admission, and clinical findings. Radiographic views of the tarsus were evaluated for incomplete ossification of tarsal bones and were classified as normal in appearance, type-I incomplete ossification, or type-II incomplete ossification. Treatment and athletic outcome were documented for each foal.

Results

Radiographic assessment revealed that 22 of 39 foals (56%) had concomitant tarsal valgus deformities and incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones. Eight of 19 foals with tarsal valgus deformities that were treated with periosteal stripping responded favorably. Foals ≤ 60 days old were significantly more likely to respond to periosteal stripping than older foals. Five of 8 foals with tarsal valgus deformities that were treated with growth plate retardation responded favorably. Eleven of 21 foals with long-term follow-up performed as intended. Compared with foals with type-II incomplete ossification, foals with tarsal bones that had a normal radiographic appearance or type-I incomplete ossification were significantly more likely to perform as intended.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Foals with tarsal valgus deformities should have lateromedial radiographic views of the tarsus obtained to assess the tarsal bones for incomplete ossification, which will affect athletic outcome. Because foals with typell incomplete ossification of the tarsal bones respond poorly to periosteal stripping alone, treatment by growth-plate retardation is recommended. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1481–1484)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of peritoneal lavage on pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy horses after experimental celiotomy.

Animals

13 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Horses were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups. All horses received gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg of body weight, IV, q 24 h) before surgery, underwent experimental abdominal surgery, and had abdominal drains placed percutaneously. Horses of the experimental group received postoperative peritoneal lavage; horses of the control group did not receive peritoneal lavage. The day after surgery, 24 hours after the preoperative dose of gentamicin, a second dose of gentamicin was administered. Three and 15 hours after this second dose of gentamicin, horses of the experimental group received peritoneal lavage. Venous blood was obtained, for determination of concentration of gentamicin, immediately before and at specified intervals during the 24-hour period after the second dose of gentamicin.

Results

There were no differences in any of the pharmacokinetic values of gentamicin between horses of the control and experimental groups.

Conclusions

Peritoneal lavage had no effect on pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in healthy horses after abdominal surgery, in which localized nonseptic peritonitis was induced.

Clinical Relevance

Peritoneal lavage in horses with localized nonseptic peritonitis or for the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions should not necessitate alteration of the dosage of gentamicin to maintain predictable serum concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1166–1170)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine long-term prognosis for horses with laminitis treated by deep digital flexor (DDF) tenotomy and to identify factors affecting success of the surgical procedure.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

35 horses with laminitis treated by DDF tenotomy between 1988 and 1997.

Procedure

Information was obtained from individual medical records and follow-up telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians. Cumulative proportions of horses that survived 6 months and 2 years after tenotomy were determined. Effect of Obel grade of lameness on 6-month and 2-year survival and effect of distal phalangeal rotation on survival and future performance were evaluated by χ 2 analysis. Body weights of horses that survived ≥ 2 years were compared with those of horses that survived < 2 years by ANOVA.

Results

27 of the 35 (77%) horses survived ≥ 6 months, and 19 of 32 (59%) survived > 2 years. Obel grade of lameness and body weight at time of surgery had no effect on 6-month or 2-year survival. Degree of distal phalangeal rotation had no effect on 2-year survival or the ability of horses to be used for light riding. Twenty-two of the 30 (73%) owners interviewed indicated they would have the procedure repeated on their horses given similar circumstances.

Clinical Implications

DDF tenotomy is a viable alternative for horses with laminitis refractory to conventional medical treatment. In some instances, the procedure may be effective in returning horses to light athletic use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:517–519).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association