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  • Author or Editor: Brendan C. McKiernan x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of 2 commercially available extended-release theophylline formulations in dogs.

Design—Randomized 3-way crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—A single dose of aminophylline (11 mg·kg–1 [5 mg·lb–1], IV, equivalent to 8.6 mg of theophylline/kg [3.9 mg·lb–1]) or extended-release theophylline tablets (mean dose, 15.5 mg·kg–1 [7.04 mg·lb–1], PO) or capsules (mean dose, 15.45 mg·kg–1 [7.02 mg·lb–1], PO) was administered to all dogs. Blood samples were obtained at various times for 36 hours after dosing; plasma was separated and immediately frozen. Plasma samples were analyzed by use of fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—Administration of theophylline IV best fit a 2-compartment model with rapid distribution followed by slow elimination. Administration of extended-release theophylline tablets and capsules best fit a 1- compartment model with an absorption phase. Mean values for plasma terminal half-life, volume of distribution, and systemic clearance were 8.4 hours, 0.546 L·kg–1, and 0.780 mL·kg–1·min–1, respectively, after IV administration of theophylline. Systemic availability was > 80% for both oral formulations. Computer simulations predicted that extended-release theophylline tablets or capsules administered at a dosage of 10 mg·kg–1 (4.5 mg·lb–1), PO, every 12 hours would maintain plasma concentrations within the desired therapeutic range of 10 to 20 µg·mL–1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of these single-dose studies indicated that administration of the specific brand of extended-release theophylline tablets or capsules used in this study at a dosage of 10 mg·kg–1, PO, every 12 hours would maintain plasma concentrations within the desired therapeutic range (10 to 20 µg·mL–1) in healthy dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1113–1119)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a brand of extended-release theophylline tablets and capsules in healthy cats.

Design—Randomized 3-way crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedures—A single dose of aminophylline (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], IV), a 100-mg extended-release theophylline tablet, or a 125-mg extended-release theophylline capsule was administered to all cats. Plasma samples were collected via preplaced central catheters throughout a 36-hour period. Plasma samples were frozen until analyzed by use of a fluorescence polarization monoclonal immunoassay.

Results—All cats tolerated drug administration and plasma collection with no adverse effects. Peak concentrations were reached for both orally administered products between 8 and 12 hours after administration. Bioavailability was excellent. Plasma concentrations were within the human therapeutic concentration of 5 to 20 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration of the brand of theophylline tablets and capsules used in this study at 15 mg/kg (6.8 mg/lb) and 19 mg/kg (8.6 mg/lb), respectively, maintained plasma concentrations within the desired therapeutic range in healthy cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether conscious, unsedated cats will inhale a nebulized material administered via a facemask and whether this material will reach the lower airways.

Animals—20 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—Technetium Tc 99m-diaminetriaminopentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) was nebulized into a spacer and administered to the cats via a closely fitting facemask. By use of a gamma camera, images were then immediately obtained to determine the distribution of 99mTc-DTPA within the lower airways.

Results—Images obtained by use of the gamma camera revealed that all 20 cats had inhaled 99mTc-DTPA from the facemask. In each cat, deposition of the radiopharmaceutical agent was evident throughout the lung fields.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Awake cats that were not used to the application of a facemask did inhale substances from such a device. Aerosolization of medications may be a feasible route of administration for cats with lower airway disease. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:806–809)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.

Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ systems) were identified. There was a significantly higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens from spayed females than from sexually intact females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%), enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and amikacin (85.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract. Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates. For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents has remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association