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  • Author or Editor: Brandy Kastl x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The geographical distribution of feline cytauxzoonosis is expanding in the US. Clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis, including lethargy, anorexia, and icterus, are similar to hepatic lipidosis and cholangiohepatitis. Hematologic and serum biochemical abnormality patterns may assist practitioners in prioritizing feline cytauxzoonosis as a differential diagnosis over hepatic lipidosis and cholangiohepatitis.

SAMPLE

Hematology and serum biochemical profiles of cats with naturally acquired feline cytauxzoonosis, hepatic lipidosis, or cholangiohepatitis.

PROCEDURES

Retrospective search and analysis of the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory or Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center records between January 2007 and June 2018 for cats with cytauxzoonosis, hepatic lipidosis, or cholangiohepatitis.

RESULTS

Patients with acute feline cytauxzoonosis presented with frequent nonregenerative anemia (20/28 [71%]), leukopenia (23/28 [82%]), thrombocytopenia (23/23 [100%]), hyperbilirubinemia (27/28 [97%]), hypoalbuminemia (26/28 [93%]), reduced (18/28 [64%]) or low normal (10/28 [36%]) serum ALP activity, and hyponatremia (23/28 [82%]). Reduced ALP activity was unique to cats with feline cytauxzoonosis relative to hepatic lipidosis and cholangiohepatitis. No correlation between the severity of anemia and the magnitude of hyperbilirubinemia was identified in feline cytauxzoonosis patients.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The combination of nonregenerative anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, and reduced serum ALP activity in icteric cats may increase the clinical suspicion, but is not pathognomonic, for acute feline cytauxzoonosis. Hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities of naturally acquired feline cytauxzoonosis are like those reported with feline bacterial sepsis. Blood smear evaluation for intraerythrocytic Cytauxzoon felis piroplasms, tissue aspirates for schizont-laden macrophages, and/or molecular testing are required to diagnose feline cytauxzoonosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate IV iron sucrose safety and impact on hematologic and iron indices in healthy cats.

ANIMALS

5 healthy research cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats were administered iron sucrose (0.5 mg/kg, IV) over 30 minutes. Monitoring for acute reactions (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure) was performed every 5 minutes during injection and every 15 minutes for an additional hour. Baseline, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, and 3-week postinjection measurements of CBC with reticulocyte indices, iron panel (ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, and iron), calculated transferrin saturation (TSAT), and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration were performed.

RESULTS

No cat experienced an acute drug reaction. SAA concentration was increased at 24 hours versus baseline. TSAT and ferritin decreased over time, with 3 cats developing concurrent functional iron deficiency (FID) and anemia. Hct (Spearman correlation [rs] = 0.805), hemoglobin (rs = 0.770), and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (rs = 0.581) correlated with TSAT.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IV iron sucrose was well tolerated in healthy cats but was associated with transient increase in the systemic inflammatory marker SAA. Efficacy evaluation of dose based on iron deficit is needed in sick cats. Despite cumulative blood draw volume below recommended limits, anemia and FID were observed, which has important implications for experimental designs and serial hematologic monitoring. Further evaluation of inflammatory response to IV iron sucrose administration is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association