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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An epidemiologic study was conducted by use of the Veterinary Medical Data Base to investigate risk factors for blastomycosis in dogs. From January 1980 through June 1990, 971 cases of blastomycosis in dogs from 22 North American veterinary teaching hospitals were identified. Of these cases, 114 (11.7%) were excluded from the study because of incomplete information regarding age, body weight, sex, and neuter status. A control group of 417,079 dogs was selected that included all other dogs with medical conditions unrelated to blastomycosis for which records were submitted to the data base during the same period.

The prevalence of blastomycosis in dogs was 205/100,000 admissions during the study period. When veterinary teaching hospitals were grouped on the basis of their general geographic location, dogs in the East South central, East North central, West South central, and South Atlantic regions had a significantly (P < 0.05) increased risk of acquiring blastomycosis, compared with that of dogs in the Mountain/Pacific region. When teaching hospitals from all geographic regions were considered, dogs had a significantly (P < 0.05) increased risk of acquiring blastomycosis in autumn, compared with that in spring.

Sporting dogs and hounds, as defined by the American Kennel Club, were at increased risk for blastomycosis. At highest risk were Bluetick Coonhounds, Treeing-walker Coonhounds, Pointers, and Weimaraners, compared with mixed-breed dogs.

Ages of dogs with blastomycosis tended to be normally distributed. Generally, the highest-risk group was composed of sexually intact male dogs, 2 to 4 years old, weighing 22.7 to 34.1 kg. This same pattern was observed for sporting dogs and hounds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis would reduce incidence of postoperative infection among dogs undergoing elective orthopedic procedures.

Design

Randomized, controlled, blinded, intention clinical trial.

Animals

Dogs of any breed, sex, or age undergoing elective orthopedic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: treatment with saline solution, treatment with potassium penicillin G, and treatment with cefazolin. Treatments were intended to be administered within 30 minutes prior to surgery; a second dose was administered if surgery lasted > 90 minutes. Dogs were monitored for 10 to 14 days after surgery for evidence of infection.

Results

After the first 112 dogs were enrolled in the study, it was found that infection rate for control dogs (5/32 dogs) was significantly higher than the rate for dogs treated with antimicrobials (3/80 dogs). Therefore, no more dogs were enrolled in the study. A total of 126 dogs completed the study. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that compared with dogs that received antimicrobials prophylactically, dogs that received saline solution developed infections significantly more frequently. Difference in efficacy, however, was not observed between the 2 antimicrobial drugs used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results indicated that perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis decreased postoperative infection rate in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, compared with infection rate in control dogs. Cefazolin was not more efficacious than potassium penicillin G in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:212–216)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association