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  • Author or Editor: Bradley D. Robért x
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Objective—To describe daily, hourly, and animal-to-animal effects on lying behavior in steers.

Animals—25 crossbred beef steers.

Procedures—Wireless accelerometers were used to record behavioral data for cattle housed in a drylot cattle research facility during two 20-day periods (winter 2007 [n = 10 steers] and spring 2008 [15]). Behavioral data were categorized into lying, standing, and walking behaviors for each time point recorded. Logistic regression models were used to determine potential associations between the percentage of time spent lying and several factors, including time (hour) of day, day of trial, and steer.

Results—Lying behavior was significantly associated with hour of day, and a distinct circadian rhythm was identified. Steers spent > 55% of the time between 8:00 pm and 4:00 am lying and were most active (<30% lying behavior) during feeding periods (6:00 am to 7:00 am and 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). Model-adjusted mean percentage of time spent lying was significantly associated with study day and was between 45% and 55% on most (27/40 [67.5%]) days. Lying behavior varied significantly among steers, and mean ± SD percentage of time spent lying ranged from 28.9 ± 6.1 % to 66.1 ± 6.6%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle had distinct circadian rhythm patterns for lying behavior, and percentage of time spent lying varied by day and among steers. Researchers need to account for factors that affect lying patterns of cattle (ie, time of day, day of trial, and individual animal) when performing research with behavioral outcomes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of chronic Anaplasma marginale infection in beef bulls from eastern Kansas and compare breeding soundness parameters between A marginale–infected and uninfected bulls. We hypothesized that bulls with chronic anaplasmosis would have inferior breeding soundness exam (BSE) outcomes as a result of persistent A marginale infection or the consequence of initial clinical disease compared to uninfected bulls.


535 client-owned beef bulls from eastern Kansas undergoing routine BSE.


Complete BSEs were conducted by participating veterinarians according to the second edition of the Society for Theriogenology Manual for Breeding Soundness Examination of Bulls. Blood samples were collected for PCV determination and analysis of A marginale infection status via quantitative PCR and cELISA. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to evaluate factors associated with A marginale infection status and BSE parameters.


Prevalence of chronic A marginale infection was 46% (245/535) among bulls. Unsatisfactory BSE outcome was not statistically associated with chronic anaplasmosis in this study population, although more bulls with chronic anaplasmosis had unsatisfactory BSE outcomes (15.0 ± 2.4% vs 12.0 ± 2.2%).


Chronic anaplasmosis is prevalent among eastern Kansas breeding bulls; however, no negative association between chronic anaplasmosis and breeding soundness at time of BSE was observed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association