Objective—To assess the in vitro capability of aqueous black walnut extracts (BWEs) to generate reactive oxygen species in water-based media ranging in makeup from a simple buffer solution to a complex solution containing serum.
Procedures—Production of reactive oxygen species by BWEs prepared in water or N-hexane was tested in PBS solution, PBS solution containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin and 5mM glucose (PBG), and RPMI-1640 medium (RPMI) containing 10% fetal bovine serum or 10% donor horse serum. Reactive oxygen species production was measured as conversion of nonfluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123 by reactive oxygen species to its fluorescent product, rhodamine-123. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a standard for reactive oxygen species activity.
Results—BWEs prepared in water generated reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner over a 4-hour period, with peak activity detected when the BWEs were added as 10% (vol/vol) of the RPMI. The BWE prepared in N-hexane generated maximal reactive oxygen species activity after incubation for 3 to 4 hours when added at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 0.5% (vol/vol) of the RPMI. The BWE prepared in water generated the highest fluorescent signal in PBS solution, whereas the BWE prepared in N-hexane generated the highest fluorescent signal in PBG.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BWEs prepared in water generated a dose-dependent induction of fluorescence in all the water-based solutions tested. These findings indicated that the BWEs, which are used to induce laminitis in horses, generate reactive oxygen species.