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SUMMARY

Twenty-six clinically normal colostrum-fed dairy calves were allotted to 5 groups. Calves of groups 1 and 2 served as nonvaccinated controls and were challenge-exposed with variable numbers of organisms. Group-3 calves were vaccinated SC with a modified Salmonella typhimurium bacterin. The bacterin was composed of killed acid-hydrolyzed S typhimurium G30/C21 (Re-mutant) whole cells coated with alkali-hydrolyzed S typhimurium LT-2 lipopolysaccharide, as antigen, and monophosphoryl lipid A, as adjuvant. Calves of groups 4 and 5 were vaccinated with a 2% mineral oil-in-water emulsion containing lipopolysaccharide as antigen and monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose 6-6′-dimycolate as adjuvants. Calves of groups 3-5 were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and again at 4 or 6 weeks of age. Adverse reactions were not observed after vaccination. Calves were challenge-exposed orally at 6 or 8 weeks of age with 1.5 × 1011 (groups 1 and 4), or 3.0 × 1011 (groups 2, 3, and 5) colony-forming units of S typhimurium UCD 108-11.

Mortality after challenge exposure was 2 of 5 group-1 calves; 4 of 5 group-2 calves; 5 of 6 group-3 calves; 1 of 5 group-4 calves; and 4 of 5 group-5 calves. Statistical difference between calves of similarly challenge-exposed groups was not evident, indicating failure of either vaccine to protect calves of this age from oral challenge exposure with virulent S typhimurium.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serologic testing to detect persistent IgG titer directed at Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (lps) has proven useful in detecting Salmonella carrier cattle without clinical signs of disease and in seroepidemiologic studies. Although little cross-reactivity exists between most Salmonella serogroups, groups B (O1, 4 [5], 12) and D (O1, 9, 12) share somatic (lps cell wall) antigens O1 and O12, which results in some cross-reactions. This may be unimportant in most instances, because group-B and group-D carriers need to be identified and culled. It may be desirable in some situations, such as when trying to control S dublin, to determine which serogroup is present in a given herd. For this reason, a procedure to produce a pure O9 group-D antigen was developed.

Salmonella dublin (group D) was grown by use of standard procedures, and lps was extracted by use of the phenol-water method. The lps was then oxidized with sodium periodate, dialyzed, reduced with sodium borohydride, cleaved with hydrochloric acid, and again dialyzed. This procedure successfully cleaved the saccharides comprising O antigens 1 and 12, leaving a pure O9 elisa antigen. Sera from cattle vaccinated or naturally infected with S typhimurium, S agona, and S schwarzengrund (all group B), S montevideo (group C1), and S dublin (group D) were tested by elisa, using modified and unmodified antigens. When the elisa antigen used was the chemically modified (pure O9) group-D antigen, elimination of cross-reactions confirmed the structural loss of cross-reacting O1 and O12 antigens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cows and calves from a 1,600-cow drylot dairy were screened for IgG antibodies to Salmonella dublin lipopolysaccharide (lps), using an indirect elisa. The elisa was performed on milk samples from lactating cows and on sera from nonlactating cows and calves. Fecal samples were collected from calves and nonlactating cows for culture of Salmonella spp. All seropositive cattle were retested by culture and elisa 5 times at monthly intervals or until antibody concentration decreased. None of the cattle remained culture-positive and seronegative. Prior to and during the sample collection period, approximately 30% of calves < 8 weeks old died of S dublin infection. Vaccination of cows with a killed S dublin/S typhimurium vaccine at cessation of lactation was a routine management practice. The elisa-determined IgG response to vaccination had decreased by 50 days after vaccination.

Eight cows and 5 calves that maintained a high serologic response to S dublin were purchased and moved to a research facility for 6 months of intensive monitoring. Lactating cows were milked twice daily, and culture of milk and feces for Salmonella spp was performed 5 times/wk. Serum IgG antibodies to S dublin lps were measured weekly, using elisa. At the end of 6 months, all 13 cattle were necropsied and tissues were obtained for culture of Salmonella spp. All 8 cows and 5 calves maintained persistently high elisa titer for the 6 months of testing, and shed S dublin in the milk and/or feces during the same period. On this basis, they were termed S dublin carriers. Salmonella dublin was isolated from mammary tissue of 2 calves at necropsy, indicating that bacteremia may be a mode of mammary infection by S dublin.

Results of the study indicated serologic testing can be used successfully on a large dairy to identify S dublin carrier cattle. Using initial milk screening, 42 of 1,268 lactating cows were identified as suspect, requiring repeated serologic testing. One nonlactating cow, 7 of the 42 suspect lactating cows, and 5 of the 222 calves maintained an IgG response, and were found to be S dublin carriers. Carrier cows shed S dublin in 3.35% of fecal samples and 2.51% of milk samples, and carrier calves shed S dublin in 17.26% of fecal samples.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A commercially available Salmonella bacterin was administered to Holstein calves starting at 1 to 19 weeks of age. Serum samples were obtained before administering bacterin and at 2-week intervals thereafter. An elisa with Salmonella dublin lipopolysaccharide (lps) or S dublin whole cells as antigen, was used to measure specific IgG and IgM responses. Antibody responses to lps were not detected from calves < 12 weeks old inoculated with killed bacterin. Immunoglobulin responses to whole-cell antigen were detected from all age groups of calves inoculated with the same killed Salmonella bacterin. Calves < 11 weeks old are able to produce immunoglobulins to some whole-cell antigens, but are unable to produce anti-lps immunoglobulins when inoculated with killed Salmonella bacterin. This age-related response to killed Salmonella antigens may account, in part, for increased susceptibility to salmonellosis in calves < 12 weeks old. In comparison to the response for killed antigen, 8 calves given modified-live aromatic-dependent S dublin bacterin at 1 to 3 weeks of age had detectable anti-lps immunoglobulins after immunization, although the response was not as rapid and was of a lesser magnitude than that of older calves given killed Salmonella bacterin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Milk samples were collected from all lactating cows on 60 dairies (mean number of cows/dairy, 584; range, 66 to 2,834) randomly selected from 701 California dairies enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association program. Samples were tested, by means of an elisa, for antibodies against Salmonella serogroup B, C1, and D1 antigens (somatic antigens 01, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12). Blood samples were collected from all cows with positive results and tested for serologic evidence of exposure to salmonellae. Samples for bacteriologic culture (pooled feces from 20 randomly selected calves, swabs of wet areas and feces from calf pens and dairy hospital pens, drag swab sample from wastewater lagoon, and samples of feed components) were also collected from all 60 dairies. Seven (11.7%) of the 60 dairies each had 1 sample that yielded Salmonella organisms (3 S typhimurium, 1 S dublin, 1 nonmotile Group D salmonella, 1 S derby, and 1 S oranienberg). Five of the Salmonella isolates came from the hospital pens and 2 came from calf pens. Thirty-three dairies did not vaccinate cattle against salmonellosis, and of these, 24 (72.7%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow (titer ≥ 200), and 20 (61 %) had ≥1 persistently seropositive cow (titer for each of 2 blood samples collected ≥ 60 days apart was ≥ 200). Of the 27 dairies that did vaccinate cows against salmonellosis, 24 (89%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow, and 21 (78%) had ≥ 1 persistently seropositive cow.

We concluded that studies that use of bacteriologic culture of fecal and environmental samples to determine the percentage of dairies with Salmonella-infected cows may underestimate the true percentage.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in neonatal calves.

Animals—Forty-two 1- to 4-day-old Holstein bull calves.

Procedure—36 calves were orally challenged with Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium (6.5 × 108 colony-forming units). Six additional calves were retained as nonmedicated nonchallenged control calves. Four days following Salmonella challenge, surviving calves were randomly allocated to ceftiofurtreated (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) or nonmedicated control groups. Calves assigned to the treated group were medicated daily for 5 days starting on day 4 after challenge. Calves were monitored for 18 days following Salmonella challenge. Outcome assessments included clinical parameters (attitude, appetite, fecal characteristics, and rectal temperature), mortality rate, and quantitative Salmonella culture of fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal contents.

Results—Ceftiofur treatment was associated with a significant decrease in rectal temperature and diarrhea. Three of 15 medicated calves and 4 of 14 nonmedicated calves died or were euthanatized between days 4 and 18. A significant decrease in fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms was observed in treated calves, compared with non-medicated calves. Salmonella organisms were isolated from all 10 nonmedicated calves at necropsy, whereas no Salmonella organisms were isolated from 5 of 12 medicated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of salmonellosis in neonatal calves with a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) promotes animal welfare, reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms, and may promote clearance of Salmonella infections when plasma ceftiofur concentrations are maintained above minimal inhibitory concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:918–925)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Immunoglobulin reactions to Salmonella dublin in serum and milk from 4 groups of lactating cows were measured by an indirect elisa. The groups consisted of (1) cows that were natural carriers of S dublin in the mammary gland, (2) experimentally infected cows that did not become carriers, (3) cows inoculated with a commercial S dublin bacterin, and (4) cows used as S dublin-negative controls. Milk and serum samples were obtained at monthly intervals. Models for predicting carrier status were developed by use of stepwise logistic regression. Independent variables consisted of serum and milk IgG and IgM titers to S dublin lipopolysaccharide and a ratio of IgG to IgM. The utility of a single sample vs multiple samples obtained at 1-month or 2-month intervals was tested by comparison of goodness-of-fit χ2 P values for 8 models predicting carrier status.

Immunoglobulin reactions specific to S dublin were a significant predictor of carrier status (P < 0.001). Serum IgG titers specific for S dublin were the most important variable for predicting carrier status. Two serum IgG titers to S dublin obtained 2 months apart was a better predictor of carrier status than measurement of the IgG:IgM ratio from a single serum sample. Immunoglobulin recognizing S dublin epitopes also were detected in milk samples. In milk, performing 2 ELISA 60 days apart to determine IgG and IgM reactions to S dublin appeared to be useful for the prediction of carrier status, but was not as accurate as models for serum immunoglobulin reactions.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To identify factors associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and alpacas.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

30 llamas and 1 alpaca.

Procedures

Medical records were searched to identify llamas or alpacas in which a histologic diagnosis of HL was made. Information was retrieved on signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of necropsy or examination of biopsy specimens. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ2 analyses.

Results

Females were affected more often than males; however, the sex distribution was not different from that of the camelid population in the diagnostic laboratory's database. Fifty-four percent of the females were pregnant, and 46% were lactating. Most affected camelids were 6 to 10 years old. Anorexia and recent weight loss were common (51.6% of camelids). An infective agent was found in only one llama, and toxins and mineral deficiencies were not identified. The most common abnormalities on serum biochemical analysis were a high concentration of bile acids, high activities of γ-glutamyltrans-ferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hypoproteinemia. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) were high in those camelids in which these compounds were assayed. Twenty-nine camelids did not survive.

Clinical Implications

Sick camelids should be considered at risk for developing HL, especially those with anorexia or the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. Other stresses also appear to contribute. High concentrations of NEFA, γ-HB, and bile acids; high activities of GGT and AST; and hypoproteinemia may indicate that HL has developed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1368–1372)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objectives

To determine the prevalence of Salmonella infections in horses at necropsy.

Design

Cross-sectional prevalence survey.

Animals

102 horses.

Procedure

Mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from horses that were necropsied. Horses had died or were euthanatized because of severe disease or at the request of the owner. Twenty-eight of the horses were racehorses euthanatized following acute catastrophic injuries on the racetrack. Mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for Salmonella culture via direct plating of tissue specimens on MacConkey agar and by use of 4 enrichment culture techniques that used tetrathionate and selenite enrichment broth and brilliant green and Salmonella-Shigella selective plating media.

Results

Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of 2 foals (2/102, 1.96% of the horses). Salmonella organisms were not isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of adult horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Prevalence of Salmonella infections in horses of our study (1.96%) suggests that the results of cross-sectional surveys, using bacteriologic culture to determine prevalence of Salmonella infection, should be interpreted with caution. Prevalence of Salmonella infections determined in a single facility may not reflect the prevalence of Salmonella-infected horses in the general population; furthermore, obtaining a Salmonella isolate from a horse does not establish that the horse is a chronic Salmonella carrier. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:507–510)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association