Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis
of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in
horses with and without neurologic abnormalities.
Animals—65 horses with and 169 horses without
Procedure—CSF and serum from horses submitted
for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neuronaspecific
antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem
examination were used as the gold standard against
which results of the WBT were compared.
Results—Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses
with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities.
Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses
with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities.
Regardless of whether horses did or did not have
neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of
WBT of serum were not significantly different from values
for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM
had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The low
specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate
to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test
result alone because of the possibility of false-positive
test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that
a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was
no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses
without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation
was common in horses with and without S
neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not
be considered an indication of CNS infection with S
neurona. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1007–1013)
Objective—To describe clinical and scintigraphic abnormalities in horses with a bone fragility disorder.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—16 horses with scintigraphic evidence of multiple sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU).
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment; history; clinical, clinicopathologic, and diagnostic imaging findings; and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners.
Results—Horses ranged from 4 to 22 years old; there were 8 castrated males and 8 females. Foci of IRU most commonly involved the scapulae, ribs, sternebrae, sacral tubers, ilia, and cervical vertebrae. Most horses were examined because of chronic intermittent (n = 10) or acute (6) lameness involving a single (10) or multiple (6) limbs that could not be localized by means of regional anesthesia. Cervical stiffness (n = 3), scapular bowing (3), swayback (3), and ataxia (1) were also seen in more advanced cases. Signs of respiratory tract disease and exercise intolerance were evident in 4 horses. Ultrasonographic or radiographic evidence of bone remodeling or degeneration was seen in 19 of 33 affected bones. Histologic examination of bone biopsy specimens revealed reactive bone. Improvement was initially seen with conservative treatment in some horses, but the condition worsened in all horses, and 11 horses were euthanized within 7 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that horses may develop a bone fragility disorder characterized clinically by an unlocalizable lameness and scintigraphically by multiple sites of IRU involving the axial skeleton and proximal portion of the appendicular skeleton.
Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.
Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.
Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.
Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.