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Objective—To evaluate quality of duodenal tissue specimens obtained endoscopically from dogs and cats and submitted to 1 of 2 diagnostic laboratories for evaluation.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—Slides from 50 consecutive canine and 50 consecutive feline endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratory 1 and 49 consecutive canine and 46 consecutive feline specimens submitted to laboratory 2.

Procedure—Slides were examined independently by 3 investigators, and each tissue piece on each slide was classified as clearly inadequate, questionable, or clearly adequate on the basis of 4 criteria. An overall score was then assigned to the slide.

Results—Slides from laboratory 1 were more likely to be scored as clearly adequate and less likely to be scored as clearly inadequate than slides from laboratory 2. Clearly adequate slides from laboratory 1 had a higher number of clearly adequate pieces of tissue than did clearly adequate slides from laboratory 2. Slides scored as clearly adequate had a higher number of individual tissue pieces than did slides scored as clearly inadequate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the quality of endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratories can vary, possibly because of differences in experience of individuals collecting biopsy specimens. Results suggest that at least 8 individual tissue pieces should be submitted when performing endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:474–479)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Lithium carbonate administration to healthy cats was evaluated in 2 controlled studies (a dose-response study and a bone marrow evaluation study) to determine the effectiveness of lithium as a bone marrow stimulant. Lithium carbonate was administrated at dosage ranging from 300 to 1,050 mg/m2 of body surface/d. Complete blood count, serum lithium concentration determination, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were periodically performed.

Serum lithium concentration > 2 mEq/L was associated with significant decrease in numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils (< 1,200 cells/μl; P < 0.01) and lymphocytes (< 1,300 cells/μl; P < 0.0001), as well as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in urine specific gravity. Bone marrow evaluation revealed apparent maturation arrest of the neutrophil cell line.

Coincident with the changes in laboratory values, the lithium-treated cats became ill. Changes in behavior and vocalization were seen, followed by anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. In later stages of intoxication, cats became hyperexcitable and manifested coarse muscular tremors. It was concluded that lithium carbonate does not have potential value as a bone marrow stimulant and is toxic to cats at serum concentration > 2 mEq/L.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research