Objective—To determine the biocontainment, biosecurity, and security practices at beef feedyards in the Central Plains of the United States.
Sample Population—Managers of feedyards in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas that feed beef cattle for finish before slaughter; feedyards had to have an active concentrated animal feeding operation permit with a 1-time capacity of ≥ 1,000 cattle.
Procedures—A voluntary survey of feedyard personnel was conducted. Identified feedyard personnel were interviewed and responses regarding facility design, security, employees, disease preparedness, feedstuffs, hospital or treatment systems, sanitation, cattle sources, handling of sick cattle, and disposal of carcasses were collected in a database questionnaire.
Results—The survey was conducted for 106 feedyards with a 1-time capacity that ranged from 1,300 to 125,000 cattle. Feedyards in general did not have high implementation of biocontainment, biosecurity, or security practices. Smaller feedyards were, in general, less likely to use good practices than were larger feedyards.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the survey provided standard practices for biocontainment, biosecurity, and security in feedyards located in Central Plains states. Information gained from the survey results can be used by consulting veterinarians and feedyard managers as a basis for discussion and to target training efforts.
To determine the percentage of dogs surviving to hospital discharge and identify factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge among dogs undergoing surgery because of primary splenic torsion (PST).
Retrospective case series.
102 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of PST that underwent surgery between August 1992 and May 2014 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination and preoperative bloodwork, method of splenectomy, concurrent surgical procedures, perioperative complications, duration of hospital stay, splenic histopathologic findings, and details of follow-up were recorded. Best-fit multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify perioperative factors associated with survival to hospital discharge.
93 of the 102 (91.2%) dogs survived to hospital discharge. German Shepherd Dogs (24/102 [23.5%]), Great Danes (15/102 [14.7%]), and English Bulldogs (12/102 [11.8%]) accounted for 50% of cases. Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to hospital discharge included septic peritonitis at initial examination (OR, 32.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 502.0), intraoperative hemorrhage (OR, 22.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 289.8), and postoperative development of respiratory distress (OR, 35.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 466.0). Histopathologic evidence of splenic neoplasia was not found in any case.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that the prognosis for dogs undergoing splenectomy because of PST was favorable. Several risk factors for death prior to discharge were identified, including preexisting septic peritonitis, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative development of respiratory distress.