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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seventy-three horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy underwent cervical vertebral interbody fusion (n = 63) or dorsal laminectomy (n = 10). Neurologic function improved in 77% of horses, and 46% of horses achieved athletic function (racing, race training, or pleasure riding) after cervical vertebral interbody fusion for static and dynamic spinal cord compressive lesions. Neurologic status improved in 4 of 10 horses after dorsal decompression for static compressive spinal cord lesions. The duration of clinical signs prior to surgical intervention was shorter for horses that achieved athletic function or improved by at least 2 neurologic grades than for horses that did not improve in neurologic status or improved 1 neurologic grade after cervical vertebral interbody fusion. The number of cervical spinal cord compressive lesions and age of horses did not affect the long-term surgical outcome of cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Seroma formation, implant failure, right laryngeal hemiplegia, and colitis were nonfatal complications associated with cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Dorsal laminectomy and cervical vertebral interbody fusion of static compressive lesions of the caudal cervical vertebral column were associated with fatal postoperative complications, including vertebral body fracture, spinal cord edema, and implant failure.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. All horses underwent a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls, group-2 horses underwent 6 hours of colonic ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline blood samples were collected, then low-flow colonic ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. All horses were monitored for 6 hours. Citrated systemic venous ( sv ) blood samples were collected from the main pulmonary artery, and colonic venous (cv) samples were collected from the colonic vein draining the ventral colon. Samples were collected at 0, and 2, 3, 3.25, 4, and 6 hours for determination of one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin III activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Data were analyzed statistically, using two-way anova for repeated measures, and post-hoc comparisons were made by use of Student Newman Keul's test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. There were significant decreases in all hemostatic variables by 2 hours in sv and cv samples from horses of all 3 groups, but there were no differences among the 3 groups for any of these variables. These hemostatic alterations could have been secondary to a hypercoagulable state or to fluid therapy-induced hemodilution. Colonic ischemia-reperfusion was not the cause of these alterations because these alterations also were observed in the sham-operated control horses. Significant temporal alterations existed even after accounting for the hemodilution. The most plausible explanation for these alterations is that hemostatic activation was incited by the celiotomy and manipulation of the colon during exteriorization and instrumentation. Comparison of paired sv and cv samples for each hemostatic variable revealed significant differences for the absolute values of one-stage prothrombin time and fibrinogen concentration, but not for activated partial thromboplastin time or antithrombin III activity. This indicates that monitoring sv hemostatic variables does not necessarily provide an accurate assessment of hemostatic function in regional vascular beds. Largecolon ischemia with or without reperfusion did not alter hemostatic function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Magnification of cervical radiographs prevents accurate interpretation of vertebral canal absolute minimum sagittal diameter (msd) values and application of the established msd values for diagnosis of cervical stenotic myelopathy (csm). Variability in msd determination in human beings, owing to radiographic magnification, is minimized by assessing a ratio of the vertebral canal diameter to the sagittal width of the vertebral body. This relative measurement technique improves the accuracy of diagnosis of cervical spinal stenosis in human beings. The msd of the vertebral canal was determined in 50 horses with csm and 50 control horses, using a radiopaque marker method for correction of magnification. In addition, a ratio of the absolute msd to the sagittal width of the vertebral body and a ratio of the absolute msd to the length of the vertebral body were determined in 100 csm-affected and 100 control horses. Response operating characteristic curve analysis of each method determined that the sagittal ratio method of canal diameter assessment provided the most accurate interpretation of cervical radiographs for diagnosis of csm, with sensitivity and specificity of ≥ 89% at each vertebral site. The accuracy of the ratio method, without consideration of bony malformation, supports the importance, and perhaps prerequisite, of generalized vertebral canal stenosis in the pathogenesis of csm. Subjective evaluation of bony malformations from cervical radiographs of 100 csm-affected horses and 100 control horses indicated that csm-affected horses have more severe bony malformation than do control horses. However, moderate to marked degenerative joint disease of the articular processes was frequently observed in control horses. Subjective evaluation of bony malformation does not distinguish between csm-affected and unaffected horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research