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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the onset, magnitude, and duration of bronchodilation after administration of aerosolized salmeterol xinafoate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Design—Randomized controlled study

Animals—6 horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Procedure—Horses received aerosolized salmeterol (210 µg) or no treatment, using a crossover design. Salmeterol was administered, using a mask designed for aerosol delivery in horses. Subjective rating of airway obstruction (RAO), maximal change in pleural pressure (ΔPplmax), and pulmonary resistance (RL) were determined at baseline; 5, 15, and 30 minutes; and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after administration of salmeterol and in horses that did not receive treatment.

Results—The ΔPpl and RL were improved 15 minutes through 6 hours after administration of salmeterol, compared with values obtained from horses receiving no treatment. The RAO was improved 15 minutes through 2 hours after administration of salmeterol. The maximal response to salmeterol was evident 30 to 60 minutes after administration and was characterized by a 59 ± 19% decrease in ΔPpl and a 56 ± 13% decrease in RL. The ΔPpl and RL were not different from baseline values 8 hours after salmeterol administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of action of salmeterol in these horses was approximately 6 hours. Maximal bronchodilation was somewhat delayed (30 to 60 minutes), and the magnitude of response was similar to that of short-acting β2-adrenergic agonists. Salmeterol provides moderately sustained bronchodilation in horses with recurrent airway obstruction and may be an effective drug for long-term control of this condition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1961–1965).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seventy-three horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy underwent cervical vertebral interbody fusion (n = 63) or dorsal laminectomy (n = 10). Neurologic function improved in 77% of horses, and 46% of horses achieved athletic function (racing, race training, or pleasure riding) after cervical vertebral interbody fusion for static and dynamic spinal cord compressive lesions. Neurologic status improved in 4 of 10 horses after dorsal decompression for static compressive spinal cord lesions. The duration of clinical signs prior to surgical intervention was shorter for horses that achieved athletic function or improved by at least 2 neurologic grades than for horses that did not improve in neurologic status or improved 1 neurologic grade after cervical vertebral interbody fusion. The number of cervical spinal cord compressive lesions and age of horses did not affect the long-term surgical outcome of cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Seroma formation, implant failure, right laryngeal hemiplegia, and colitis were nonfatal complications associated with cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Dorsal laminectomy and cervical vertebral interbody fusion of static compressive lesions of the caudal cervical vertebral column were associated with fatal postoperative complications, including vertebral body fracture, spinal cord edema, and implant failure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations and serum cortisol concentration in horses with colic and assess the relationship of these variables with clinical signs, routinely measured clinicopathologic variables, and outcome in affected horses.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—35 horses with colic.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected within 30 minutes of arrival at the veterinary hospital from horses referred because of colic. Plasma and serum samples were analyzed for cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, lactate, and electrolyte concentrations and acid-base variables. Heart rate at admission and outcome (survival or nonsurvival) were recorded. Univariate logistic regression was used to calculate crude (unadjusted) odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results—Of the 35 horses with colic, 26 survived. Higher plasma epinephrine, plasma lactate, and serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of nonsurvival, but plasma norepinephrine concentration was not associated with outcome. Plasma epinephrine concentration was significantly correlated with heart rate (r = 0.68), plasma lactate concentration (r = 0.87), blood pH (r = –0.83), anion gap (r = 0.74), and base excess (r = –0.81).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The risk of death appears to be greater in colic-affected horses with high circulating concentrations of epinephrine and cortisol. The correlation of epinephrine with other biochemical markers of illness severity and with heart rate indicates that the degree of sympathetic activation in horses with colic can be inferred from routinely measured variables. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:276–280)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. All horses underwent a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls, group-2 horses underwent 6 hours of colonic ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline blood samples were collected, then low-flow colonic ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. All horses were monitored for 6 hours. Citrated systemic venous ( sv ) blood samples were collected from the main pulmonary artery, and colonic venous (cv) samples were collected from the colonic vein draining the ventral colon. Samples were collected at 0, and 2, 3, 3.25, 4, and 6 hours for determination of one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin III activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Data were analyzed statistically, using two-way anova for repeated measures, and post-hoc comparisons were made by use of Student Newman Keul's test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. There were significant decreases in all hemostatic variables by 2 hours in sv and cv samples from horses of all 3 groups, but there were no differences among the 3 groups for any of these variables. These hemostatic alterations could have been secondary to a hypercoagulable state or to fluid therapy-induced hemodilution. Colonic ischemia-reperfusion was not the cause of these alterations because these alterations also were observed in the sham-operated control horses. Significant temporal alterations existed even after accounting for the hemodilution. The most plausible explanation for these alterations is that hemostatic activation was incited by the celiotomy and manipulation of the colon during exteriorization and instrumentation. Comparison of paired sv and cv samples for each hemostatic variable revealed significant differences for the absolute values of one-stage prothrombin time and fibrinogen concentration, but not for activated partial thromboplastin time or antithrombin III activity. This indicates that monitoring sv hemostatic variables does not necessarily provide an accurate assessment of hemostatic function in regional vascular beds. Largecolon ischemia with or without reperfusion did not alter hemostatic function.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research