Objective—To determine clinical sensitivity and specificity of a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis (Cfv) in preputial samples of bulls.
Animals—313 beef bulls.
Procedures—Preputial samples were collected from 300 virgin bulls and 13 Cfv-infected bulls. Specificity of the qRT-PCR assay, determined on the basis of results for samples collected from virgin bulls, was compared with specificity of bacteriologic culture performed with transport enrichment medium (TEM). Sensitivity of the qRT-PCR assay, determined on the basis of results for multiple samples collected at weekly intervals from infected bulls, was compared with sensitivity of the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT), bacteriologic culture, and bacteriologic culture with TEM.
Results—Specificity was 85% for the qRT-PCR assay and 100% for bacteriologic culture; results were significantly different. Mean sensitivity was 85.4% for the qRT-PCR assay, 82.3% for direct culture in blood agar, 72.1% for the DFAT, 32.7% for direct culture in Skirrow agar, 30% for bacteriologic culture with TEM and blood agar, and 38.1% for bacteriologic culture with TEM and Skirrow agar. Differences in sensitivity among tests varied with ambient outdoor temperature. Repeated sampling significantly increased sensitivity of the qRT-PCR assay.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the qRT-PCR assay as a screening test on direct preputial samples had comparable sensitivity to bacteriologic culture, and repeated sampling improved sensitivity. Although improved performance of the qRT-PCR assay, compared with direct bacteriologic culture, was dependent on temperature, transport times that allow direct culture are unlikely under field conditions. The qRT-PCR assay would provide a fast and sensitive screening method for Cfv in bulls.
Objective—To compare the recovery rates of Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis (Cfv) from preputial scrapings of infected bulls with passive filtration on selective medium versus nonselective medium, with and without transport medium.
Samples—217 preputial scrapings from 12 bulls (4 naturally and 8 artificially infected with Cfv).
Procedures—Preputial scrapings were collected in 2 mL of PBS solution and bacteriologically cultured directly on Skirrow medium or passively filtered through 0.65-μm filters onto blood agar, with or without 24 hour preincubation in modified Weybridge transport enrichment medium (TEM). After 72 hours, plates were examined for Cfv and bacterial and fungal contamination or overgrowth.
Results—Passive filtration of fresh preputial scrapings onto blood agar yielded significantly higher recovery rates of Cfv (86%) than direct plating on Skirrow medium (32%), whereas recovery from TEM was poor for both media (35% and 40%, respectively). Skirrow cultures without TEM were significantly more likely to have fungal contamination than were cultures performed with any other technique, and fungal contamination was virtually eliminated by passive filtration onto blood agar. Bacterial contamination by Pseudomonas spp was significantly more common with Skirrow medium versus passive filtration on blood agar, regardless of TEM use.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of transport medium and the choice of culture medium had significant effects on Cfv recovery and culture contamination rates from clinical samples. Both factors should be considered when animals are tested for this pathogen.