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  • Author or Editor: Binu T. Velayudhan x
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Objective—To compare molecular typing methods for the differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 isolates that allowed for the determination of their genetic relatedness.

Sample Population—27 Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 strains isolated in the United States and Europe.

Procedure—Several molecular typing methods were performed to assess their ability to genetically differentiate among Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 isolates. Results of pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA, and antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated.

Results—Compared with results for other techniques, results for the RAPD typing method with the RAPD1 primer reveal that it was the most discriminatory fingerprinting technique, and it allowed us to cluster Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 isolates on the basis of their genetic similarity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed the value of RAPD with the RAPD1 primer as a tool for epidemiologic investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4. It can be used in conjunction with PFGE and phage typing to determine the genetic relatedness of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates involved in outbreaks of disease. A reliable and highly discriminatory method for epidemiologic investigations is critical to allow investigators to identify the source of infections and consequently prevent the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:538–543)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine titers of serum antibodies against 3 genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama.

ANIMALS 62 cattle, goats, and New World camelids from 5 distinct herds and 21 captured white-tailed deer.

PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from all animals for determination of anti-BPI3V antibody titers, which were measured by virus neutralization assays that used indicator (reference) viruses from each of the 3 BPI3V genotypes (BPI3V-A, BPI3V-B, and BPI3V-C). The reference strains were recent clinical isolates from US cattle. Each sample was assayed in triplicate for each genotype. Animals with a mean antibody titer ≤ 2 for a particular genotype were considered seronegative for that genotype.

RESULTS Animals seropositive for antibodies against BPI3V were identified in 2 of 3 groups of cattle and the group of New World camelids. The geometric mean antibody titer against BPI3V-B was significantly greater than that for BPI3V-A and BPI3V-C in all 3 groups. All goats, captive white-tailed deer, and cattle in the third cattle group were seronegative for all 3 genotypes of the virus.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant genotype circulating among ungulates in Alabama. This may be clinically relevant because BPI3V is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease complex, current vaccines contain antigens against BPI3V-A only, and the extent of cross-protection among antibodies against the various BPI3V genotypes is unknown.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research