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  • Author or Editor: Billie Beckwith-Cohen x
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Objective—To determine baseline tear pH in dogs, horses, and cattle by use of a microelectrode.

Animals—28 dogs, 24 horses, and 29 cattle.

Procedures—Under manual restraint, tears were collected from each subject's left eye with cotton spears. A Schirmer tear test was performed in the right eye. Tears were extracted from the spears by centrifugation. Tear volume was measured, pH was determined with a microelectrode, and total solids (TS) concentration was measured by refractometry.

Results—Mean ± SD pH of tears in cattle, dogs, and horses was 8.32 ± 0.14, 8.05 ± 0.26, and 7.84 ± 0.30, respectively. Tear pH was significantly higher in cattle versus dogs and horses and in dogs versus horses. Mean ± SD TS concentration in horses, cattle, and dogs was 2.04 ± 1.29 g/dL, 1.07 ± 0.60 g/dL, and 0.33 ± 0.18 g/dL, respectively. Total solids concentration was significantly higher in horses versus cattle and dogs and in cattle versus dogs. Schirmer tear test results for all animals were within the species reference range.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear pH in all 3 species differed from that of published blood pH values and the pH of common topically administered ophthalmic medications. These fndings may have implications for variations in ocular flora and defense mechanisms, susceptibility to ocular disease, and success or comfort of topical treatment.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—6 dogs (10 eyes) with keratitis following long-term topical treatment with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) were evaluated. In 4 dogs (6 eyes), CAI treatment was discontinued. Three dogs (4 eyes) underwent enucleation because of end-stage corneal disease. One dog was treated differently in each eye and thus was represented in both aforementioned groups.

Clinical Findings—Following initiation of treatment with a CAI (ie, brinzolamide or dorzolamide), the median time to development of severe ocular signs was 266 days (range, 133 to 679 days). Clinically severe ocular signs included ulcerative and nonulcerative perilimbal keratitis or severe diffuse keratitis with marked vascularization. The keratitis was refractory to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of enucleated globes was performed in 3 affected dogs and in 1 dog with keratitis that recovered. Corneal lesions included 2 distinct inflammatory infiltrates with plasma cells predominating in the anterior stroma and both T cells and neutrophils in the epithelium. Stromal plasma cells and overlying epithelium exhibited strong positive immunoreactivity for IgG.

Treatment and Outcome—Topical CAI treatment was discontinued in 4 dogs after a median of 209 days (range, 44 to 433 days), and in these dogs, clinical improvement was evident within 2 to 4 days of CAI treatment cessation. Signs of keratitis resolved in 12 to 25 days in these 4 dogs, and median follow-up time after CAI discontinuation was 25.5 months (range, 6 to 42 months), during which time signs of corneal disease did not recur.

Clinical Relevance—On the basis of this small series, presumed topical CAI-associated keratitis in dogs appeared to be an uncommon immune-mediated disease that was not responsive to corticosteroid treatment. Affected patients improved rapidly, but only after discontinuation of CAI treatment. In dogs with glaucoma, clinicians should consider the development of punctate keratopathy and severe diffuse keratitis as potential adverse effects related to topical administration of CAIs, even after previously uneventful long-term use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association