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  • Author or Editor: Bianca F. Hettlich x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether body weight, body condition score, or various body dimensions were associated with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion and whether any of these factors were associated with severity of clinical signs in Dachshunds.

Design—Cross-sectional clinical study.

Animals—75 Dachshunds with (n = 39) or without (36) acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion.

Procedures—Signalment, various body measurements, body weight, body condition score, and spinal cord injury grade were recorded at the time of initial examination.

Results—Mean T1-S1 distance and median tuber calcaneus–to–patellar tendon (TC-PT) distance were significantly shorter in affected than in unaffected dogs. A 1-cm decrease in T1-S1 distance was associated with a 2.1-times greater odds of being affected, and a 1-cm decrease in TC-PT distance was associated with an 11.1-times greater odds of being affected. Results of multivariable logistic regression also indicated that affected dogs were taller at the withers and had a larger pelvic circumference than unaffected dogs, after adjusting for other body measurements. Results of ordinal logistic regression indicated that longer T1-S1 distance, taller height at the withers, and smaller pelvic circumference were associated with more severe spinal cord injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that certain body dimensions may be associated with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion in Dachshunds and, in affected dogs, with severity of neurologic dysfunction.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare MRI susceptibility artifacts related to titanium and stainless steel monocortical screws in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord of canine cadavers.

SAMPLE 12 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Cervical vertebrae (C4 and C5) were surgically stabilized with titanium or stainless steel monocortical screws and polymethylmethacrylate. Routine T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and short tau inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3.0 T. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts in 20 regions of interest (ROIs) across 4 contiguous vertebrae (C3 through C6) were scored by use of an established scoring system.

RESULTS Artifact scores for stainless steel screws were significantly greater than scores for titanium screws at 18 of 20 ROIs. Artifact scores for titanium screws were significantly higher for spinal cord ROIs within the implanted vertebrae. Artifact scores for stainless steel screws at C3 were significantly less than at the other 3 cervical vertebrae.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Evaluation of routine MRI sequences obtained at 3.0 T revealed that susceptibility artifacts related to titanium monocortical screws were considered mild and should not hinder the overall clinical assessment of the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord. However, mild focal artifacts may obscure small portions of the spinal cord or intervertebral discs immediately adjacent to titanium screws. Severe artifacts related to stainless steel screws were more likely to result in routine MRI sequences being nondiagnostic; however, artifacts may be mitigated by implant positioning.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate differences in bacterial numbers, identity, and susceptibility in samples obtained from the tympanic cavity on entry (preflush) and after evacuation and lavage (postflush) and assess perioperative and empiric antimicrobial selection in dogs that underwent total ear canal ablation (TECA) with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) or reoperation LBO.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—34 dogs.

Procedure—TECA with LBO or reoperation LBO was performed on 47 ears. Pre- and postflush aerobic and anaerobic samples were obtained from the tympanic cavity. Isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were compared.

Results—Different isolates (31/44 [70%] ears) and susceptibility patterns of isolate pairs (6/44 [14%] ears) were detected in pre- and postflush samples from 84% of ears. Evacuation and lavage of the tympanic cavity decreased the number of bacterial isolates by 33%. In 26% of ears, bacteria were isolated from postflush samples but not preflush samples. Only 26% of isolates tested were susceptible to cefazolin. At least 1 isolate from 53% of dogs that received empirically chosen antimicrobials postoperatively was resistant to the selected drugs. Anaerobic bacteria were recovered from 6 ears.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate microbiologic assessment of the tympanic cavity should be the basis for selection of antimicrobials in dogs undergoing TECA with LBO. Bacteria remain in the tympanic cavity after evacuation and lavage. Cefazolin was a poor choice for dogs that underwent TECA with LBO, as judged on the basis of culture and susceptibility testing results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:748–755)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a questionnaire for obtaining owner-perceived, weighted quality-oflife assessments for dogs with spinal cord injuries.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—100 dogs with spinal cord injuries and 48 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—The questionnaire was adapted from a questionnaire (the schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life–direct weighting) used for human patients. Specifically, owners were asked to identify 5 areas or activities they believed had the most influence on their dogs' quality of life, assess their dogs' current status in each of those areas, and provide a weighting for the importance of each area. Results were used to construct a weighted quality-of-life score ranging from 0 to 100 for each dog. Owners were also asked to provide a quality-of-life score with a visual analog scale (VAS).

Results—A good correlation was found between weighted and VAS quality-of-life scores. Dogs with spinal cord injuries had weighted quality-of-life scores that were significantly lower than scores for control dogs. Quality-of-life areas and activities provided by owners of dogs with spinal cord injuries were similar to areas and activities provided by owners of healthy control dogs and could mostly be encompassed by 5 broader domains: mobility, play or mental stimulation, health, companionship, and other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the questionnaire could be used to obtain owner-perceived, weighted quality-of-life assessments for dogs with spinal cord injuries. Obtaining owner-perceived quality-of-life assessments for individual dogs should allow veterinarians to better address quality-of-life concerns and expectations of owners.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes over time in owner-perceived, weighted quality-of-life assessments in dogs with spinal cord injuries and determine whether scores were associated with underlying etiology or with veterinarian-assigned scores for severity of neurologic dysfunction.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—100 dogs with spinal cord injury.

Procedures—Duration of dysfunction, modified Frankel neurologic injury score, and etiology were recorded. At initial and recheck (4- to 6-week) evaluations, owners were asked to identify 5 areas or activities they believed had the most influence on their dogs' quality of life, assess their dogs' current status in each area, and provide a weighting for the importance of each area; results were used to construct a weighted quality-of-life score. Owners were also asked to provide a quality-of-life score with a visual analog scale (VAS).

Results—At initial and recheck evaluations, weighted quality-of-life scores were higher for ambulatory than for nonambulatory dogs. However, scores did not differ among groups when dogs were grouped on the basis of underlying etiology or duration of injury. Dogs with an increase in Frankel score between the initial and recheck evaluations had a significant increase in weighted quality-of-life score, whereas for dogs that did not have any change in Frankel score, initial and recheck weighted quality-of-life scores were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that owner-assigned, weighted quality-of-life scores for dogs with spinal cord injuries did not vary significantly on the basis of underlying etiology or duration of injury but were higher for ambulatory than for nonambulatory dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association