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  • Author or Editor: Beverly K. Sturges x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine CSF characteristics associated with intracranial meningiomas in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—56 dogs with intracranial meningiomas.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of intracranial meningioma, in which CSF analysis had been performed, were reviewed. Information concerning total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential nucleated cell counts, RBC counts, and total protein concentration in CSF; seizure history and glucocorticoid administration; and location of meningiomas was recorded.

Results—TNCCs < 5 cells/μL were detected in 41 of 56 (73%) dogs; 5 of 56 (9%) dogs had TNCCs > 50 cells/μL. Analysis of CSF revealed predominantly neutrophilic pleocytosis in < 20% of dogs. There was a significant association between meningioma location (caudal portion of the cranial fossa or middle and rostral portion of the cranial fossae) and increased TNCCs (≥ 5 cells/μL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results were significantly different from those routinely reported in the veterinary literature. Neutrophilic pleocytosis, especially with TNCCs > 50 cells/μL, was not typical in CSF samples from dogs with intracranial meningiomas. Neutrophilic pleocytosis may not be detected in CSF samples from dogs with meningiomas located within the middle or rostral portion of the cranial fossae.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the number and types of underlying disorders detected in dogs with aspiration pneumonia and determine the survival rate among affected dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify disease processes that could result in aspiration pneumonia. To assess outcome (ie, survival to discharge from the hospital or nonsurvival), dogs were grouped by the type and number of underlying disease processes. Duration of hospitalization and radiographic severity of disease were evaluated with regard to case outcome.

Results—As the cause of aspiration pneumonia, a single underlying disorder was identified in 60 of the 88 dogs; 2 or more diseases were identified in the remaining dogs. Esophageal disease (n = 35), vomiting (34), neurologic disorders (24), laryngeal disease (16), and postanesthetic aspiration (12) were identified most commonly. Overall, 68 dogs survived to discharge from the hospital (survival rate, 77%). Survival rates were comparable among dogs regardless of the underlying cause of aspiration pneumonia. Radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization did not influence survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among these study dogs, aspiration pneumonia was associated with a high survival rate. The presence of more than 1 underlying disease associated with aspiration pneumonia did not adversely impact survival rate. Interestingly, radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization were not associated with overall survival rate.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the clinical course of disease and risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with tetanus.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—38 dogs with tetanus.

Procedures—Data were collected from medical records of dogs with tetanus, including signalment; wound characteristics; initial clinical signs; severity of worst clinical signs; time to wound management, antimicrobial treatment, and antitoxin administration; and 28-day survival rate. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between the potentially predictive variables and disease progression and outcome.

Results—The 28-day survival rate was 77% (among 35 uncensored dogs). The most common initial clinical signs in affected dogs were ocular (n = 18) and facial (11) abnormalities. Nineteen dogs progressed to recumbency with severe muscle spasms, and 14 dogs had high or low heart rate or blood pressure values. Eight dogs died or were euthanized because of complications of tetanus. There was a significant association between younger age and development of more severe clinical signs. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship between development of severe clinical signs and survival was identified. There was no as-sociation between earlier initiation of wound management, antimicrobial administration, or antitoxin administration and either progression of signs or 28-day survival rate. Wound type was not associated with 28-day survival rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that younger dogs with tetanus may be more likely to develop severe clinical signs. The prognosis for survival in dogs with tetanus is good if abnormalities in heart rate or blood pressure values do not develop.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 9-year-old dog was evaluated for traumatic cervical myelopathy after a surgical attempt to realign and stabilize the C2 and C3 vertebrae.

Clinical Findings—The dog could not ventilate spontaneously and was tetraplegic; positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) was maintained. Myelography and computed tomography revealed spinal cord compression with subluxation of the C2 and C3 vertebrae and extrusion of the C2-3 intervertebral disk.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgically, the protruding disk material was removed and the vertebrae were realigned with screws and wire. For PPV, assist control ventilation in volume control mode and then in pressure control mode was used in the first 6 days; this was followed by synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation until 33 days after the injury; then only continuous positive airway pressure was provided until the dog could breathe unassisted, 37 days after the injury. Physical therapy that included passive range of motion exercises, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and functional weight-bearing positions was administered until the dog was discharged 46 days after injury; the dog was severely ataxic and tetraparetic but could walk. Therapy was continued at home, and 1 year later, the dog could run and had moderate ataxia and tetraparesis.

Clinical Relevance—Hypoventilation with tetraparesis in traumatic spinal cord injury can be successfully treated with PPV exceeding 30 days, surgery, and physical therapy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical features of cryptococcosis among cats and dogs in California, determine whether the distribution of involved tissues differs from distribution reported previously in a study in southeastern Australia, and identify Cryptococcus spp isolated from the study population.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—62 cats and 31 dogs with cryptococcosis.

Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs with cryptococcosis were reviewed. Information collected included geographic location, species, signalment, and tissues or organs involved. Cryptococcosis was confirmed via serology, cytology, histology, or microbial culture, and molecular typing was performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine significant associations among variables. Other comparisons were evaluated via χ2 or unpaired t tests.

Results—American Cocker Spaniels were overrepresented, compared with other dog breeds. Serum cryptococcal antigen test results were positive in 51 of 53 cats and 15 of 18 dogs tested. Cryptococcus gattii was more commonly detected in cats (7/9 for which species identification was performed), and Cryptococcus neoformans was more commonly detected in dogs (6/8). Six of 7 C gattii isolates from cats were molecular type VGIII. Distribution of involved tissues was different between cats and dogs in California and between populations of the present study and those of the previously reported Australian study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strains of Cryptococcus spp appeared to have host specificity in dogs and cats. Differences in lesion distribution between geographic locations may reflect strain differences or referral bias. Antigen assays alone may not be sufficient for diagnosis of cryptococcosis in cats and dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association