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  • Author or Editor: Betsy Dayrell-Hart x
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Summary

Gamma-vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid is a novel antiepileptic drug that exerts its effects by increasing the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid in the brain. The mechanism of action involves irreversible inhibition of the metabolic pathway of γ-aminobutyric acid. The drug was administered to 14 dogs in conjunction with other anticonvulsants, in an attempt to control refractory epilepsy. Four of these dogs had clinically relevant evidence of decreased seizure frequency. In 4 dogs, response to the drug was no better than response to phenobarbital alone. In 2 dogs, seizure control improved, but γ-vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid was withdrawn because of development of hemolytic anemia. For various reasons, the therapeutic effect in the remaining 4 dogs could not be evaluated.

This study of only 14 dogs illustrates some of the problems that confound our ability to judge the efficacy of anticonvulsant treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 18 dogs that had hepatic disease and received phenobarbital as an anticonvulsant for 5 to 82 months were reviewed. Clinical signs included sedation and ataxia in all dogs, 5 dogs were also anorectic, 2 had coagulopathy, 3 were icteric, and 5 had ascites. Serum biochemical analysis revealed serum albumin concentration ≤ 2.2 g/dl in 12 dogs, serum alkaline phosphatase activity ≥ 169 U/L in 18 dogs, serum alanine transaminase activity ≥ 57 U/L in 15 dogs, and total bilirubin concentration ≥ 1 mg/dl (in the absence of lipemia) in 7 dogs.

Serum phenobarbital concentration was ≥ 40 μg/ml in 12 of 17 dogs. Sulfobromophthalein excretion was prolonged in 8 of 10 dogs. Preprandial serum bile acid concentrations were high in 8 of 10 dogs, and 2-hour postprandial serum bile acid concentrations were high in 9 of 10 dogs. Two of 4 dogs tested had resting plasma ammonia concentrations > 200 mg/dl. An ammonia tolerance test was performed on 2 other dogs; both had ammonia concentration ≥ 200 mg/dl in the plasma 30 minutes after receiving 100 mg of ammonium chloride/kg of body weight, po.

Nine dogs died, 1 was euthanatized, and necropsies were performed on these 10 dogs. Biopsies and necropsies of 6 dogs revealed chronic hepatic fibrosis with nodular regeneration (cirrhosis). One dog had hepatocellular carcinoma and mild cirrhosis. In 1 dog, after phenobarbital had been withheld, necropsy revealed complete recovery of the previously observed lesions.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Over a reporting period of 5 years, craniotomy was performed in 26 dogs and 5 cats with various intracranial lesions. X-ray computed tomography was performed in all animals prior to surgery. Twenty dogs and all cats had intracranial neoplasms; of these, 14 were meningioma, and 11 represented a wide variety of brain tumors and skeletal tumors. Three dogs were treated surgically for traumatic, open-skull fractures with cerebral damage, and 3 underwent biopsy to evaluate chronic inflammatory brain disease. The overall median survival time was 212 days, the 1-year survival rate was 39%, and the 2-year survival rate was 20%. Dogs and cats with meningioma survived a mean 198 and 485 days, respectively, with 1-year survival rates of 30% for dogs and 50% for cats. The overall median survival time for animals with tumors other than meningeal intracranial neoplasms was 414 days, with a 1-year survival rate of 40%. The death of 19% of all animals could be related to the combination of advanced brain disease and surgery. Because fatality seldom occurred as a direct result of surgery, morbidity and mortality associated with craniotomy in pet animals can be seen as acceptably low. In 29 of 34 craniotomies, dura mater defects were left unsutured and no adverse effects were seen.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether glutamine (GLN), tryptophan (TRP), and tryptophan metabolite concentrations are higher in cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) dogs with naturally occurring portosystemic shunts (PSS), compared with control dogs.

Animals—11 dogs with confirmed PSS and 12 control dogs fed low- and high-protein diets.

Procedure—Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from all dogs. Serum and CSF concentrations of GLN, alanine, serine, TRP, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) were measured.

Results—Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of GLN, TRP, and 5-HIAA were significantly higher in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed high- or lowprotein diets. Cerebrospinal fluid QUIN concentration was significantly higher in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed the low-protein diet. Serum QUIN concentration was significantly lower in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed either high- or lowprotein diets.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An increase in CNS GLN concentration is associated with high CSF concentrations of TRP and TRP metabolites in dogs with PSS. High CSF 5-HIAA concentrations indicate an increased flux of TRP through the CNS serotonin metabolic pathway, whereas high CSF QUIN concentrations indicate an increased metabolism of TRP through the indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase pathway. The high CSF QUIN concentrations in the face of low serum QUIN concentrations in dogs with PSS indicates that QUIN production from TRP is occurring in the CNS. High concentrations of QUIN and other TRP metabolites in the CNS may contribute to neurologic abnormalities found in dogs with PSS and hepatic encephalopathy. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1167–1171)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research