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OBJECTIVE To develop a cattle herd risk-profiling system that could potentially inform risk-based surveillance strategies for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and provide information that could be used to help direct resource allocation by a state agency for this purpose.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE Records for any size movement (importation) of cattle into Minnesota from other US states during 2009 (n = 7,185) and 2011 (8,107).

PROCEDURES Data from certificates of veterinary inspection were entered into a spreadsheet. Movement data were summarized at premises and county levels, and for each level, the distribution of cattle moved and number of movements were evaluated. Risk profiling (assessment and categorization of risk for disease introduction) for each import movement was performed on the basis of known risk factors. Latent class analysis was used to assign movements to risk classifications with adjustment on the basis of expert opinions from personnel knowledgeable about bovine tuberculosis; these data were used to classify premises as very high, high, medium, or low risk for disease introduction.

RESULTS In each year, approximately 1,500 premises imported cattle, typically beef and feeder types, with the peak of import movements during the fall season. The risk model identified 4 risk classes for cattle movements. Approximately 500 of the estimated 27,406 (2%) cattle premises in Minnesota were in the very high or high risk groups for either year; greatest density of these premises was in the southeast and southwest regions of the state.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A risk-profiling approach was developed that can be applied in targeted surveillance efforts for bovine tuberculosis, particularly in disease-free areas.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether feeding a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet would decrease severity of exercise-induced muscle injury in horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.


19 horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.


Case series.


Specimens of the semitendinosus or semimembranosus muscle were obtained for histologic examination, and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities 4 hours after exercise were determined. Horses were then fed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, and serum CK and AST activities 4 hours after exercise were reevaluated at approximately monthly intervals for 3 to 6 months.


Serum CK and AST activities 4 hours after exercise were high before any change in diet. All 19 horses had evidence of chronic myopathic change and abnormal glycogen accumulation in muscle biopsy specimens; 11 horses also had evidence of complex polysaccharide accumulation. Adaptation to diet change required approximately 3 to 6 months. Sixteen horses did not have any episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis after 3 to 6 months of diet change, and 3 horses had mild episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following either a reduction in dietary fat intake or restriction in exercise. Postexercise serum CK and AST activities 3 to 6 months after the change in diet were significantly less than initial values.

Clinical Implications

Results indicated that exertional rhabdomyolysis may be a result of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in some horses. Feeding a diet with low carbohydrate and high fat content may reduce severity of exercise-induced injury in some horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1588–1593).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association