Objective—To compare onset time and quality of sedation achieved by IM injection of hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine into either the semimembranosus, cervical, gluteal, or lumbar muscle groups in dogs.
Design—Prospective, randomized, crossover study.
Procedures—Each dog was assigned to receive each treatment in random order, and at least 1 week elapsed between treatments. Dogs were sedated with dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone combined and injected IM into the assigned muscle group. An observer unaware of group assignments assessed physiologic variables every 5 minutes for 30 minutes, and a videographic recording was obtained. Recordings were evaluated by 16 individuals who were unaware of group assignments; these reviewers assessed time to onset of sedation and assigned a sedation score to each dog every 5 minutes.
Results—Resting pulse and respiratory rates did not differ among injection site groups. The semimembranosus site had a significantly higher sedation score than all other sites, and the cervical site had a significantly higher sedation score than the lumbar and gluteal sites. The semimembranosus and cervical sites had significantly shorter time to onset of sedation than did the gluteal and lumbar sites.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When the combination of dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone was used to induce sedation in dogs, rapid and profound sedation was achieved with IM injection into the semimembranosus muscle.
To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI).
36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018.
Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, blood work and diagnostic imaging results, surgical findings, and outcome. Factors were evaluated for associations with various outcomes.
Median age of dogs with GEI was 13.2 months, and males (72% [26/36]) and German Shepherd Dogs (33% [12/36]) were most common. Vomiting (67% [24/36]) and regurgitation (33% [12/36]) were the most common clinical signs. Ten of 36 (28%) dogs were euthanized without treatment, and 26 (72%) underwent treatment (25 surgically and 1 endoscopically). Twenty-three of the 26 (88%) treated dogs survived to discharge; median survival time was 995 days. At last follow-up, 15 of the 23 (65%) surviving dogs remained alive and 8 (35%) had died for reasons related to persistent regurgitation (n = 6) or reasons unrelated to GEI (2). Of the 10 dogs for which owners were contacted, 7 had persistent regurgitation, the severity of which was reduced through managed feedings. Dogs with acute (≤ 7 days) clinical signs or a previous diagnosis of megaesophagus were more likely to have persistent regurgitation than were dogs without these factors.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Treatment should be considered for dogs with GEI given the high rate of survival to discharge and median survival time. Although persistent regurgitation was common after treatment, a satisfactory outcome was possible with medical management, including managed feedings and medications.