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Objective—To determine risk factors for short-term recurrent urethral obstruction in cats after treatment by means of urinary catheterization and hospitalization.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—83 client-owned cats.

Procedures—Physical examination findings, laboratory abnormalities, treatment decisions, and environmental changes were evaluated as risk factors for recurrent urethral obstruction in the 30 days following hospital discharge.

Results—Of the 68 cats with completed follow-up surveys, 10 had an episode of recurrent urethral obstruction. Older cats were significantly more likely to have recurrent urethral obstruction. No specific laboratory abnormalities were associated with the risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. Longer duration of catheterization was significantly associated with a decreased risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. Duration of hospitalization and volume of IV fluids delivered were not significantly associated with recurrent urethral obstruction. Increasing water availability after discharge was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. There was no association between diet and recurrent urethral obstruction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that longer duration of catheterization may be associated with a lower probability of short-term recurrent urethral obstruction in male cats. Older cats were at higher risk for recurrent obstruction. Owners should be encouraged to increase water availability after discharge in cats treated for urethral obstruction to decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the time-course of ampicillin-sulbactam and percentage of time that its concentration is above a given MIC (T% > MIC) in dogs with septic peritonitis when delivered as either a continuous infusion (CI) or intermittent infusion (II).


11 dogs with septic peritonitis.


Dogs were randomized to receive ampicillin-sulbactam as either CI or II. Continuous infusions were delivered as a 50 mg/kg bolus IV followed by a rate of 0.1 mg/kg/min. Intermittent infusions were administered as 50 mg/kg IV q8h. Serum ampicillin-sulbactam concentrations were measured at hours 0, 1, 6, and every 12 hours after until patients were transitioned to an oral antimicrobial equivalent. All other care was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Statistical analysis was used to determine each patient's percentage of time T% > MIC for 4 MIC breakpoints (0.25, 1.25, 8, and 16 µg/mL).


No dogs experienced adverse events related to ampicillin-sulbactam administration. Both CI and II maintained a T% > MIC of 100% of MIC 0.25 µg/mL and MIC 1.25 µg/mL. The CI group maintained a higher T% > MIC for MIC 8 µg/mL and MIC 16 µg/mL; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = .15 and P = .12, respectively).


This study could not demonstrate that ampicillin-sulbactam CI maintains a greater T% > MIC in dogs with septic peritonitis than II; however, marginal differences were noted at higher antimicrobial breakpoints. While these data support the use of antimicrobial CI in septic and critically ill patients, additional prospective trials are needed to fully define the optimal doses and the associated clinical responses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research