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Objective—To investigate effects of IV administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs.

Animals—7 dogs.

Procedures—Thromboelastography and coagulation panel analysis were used to assess coagulation. Samples (S1 through S9) were collected during the study phases: phase 0 (S1 [baseline]); phase 1 (S2 and S3), infusion of crystalloid fluid without dextrose; phase 2 (S4 and S5), high-rate dextrose infusion; phase 3 (S6, S7, and S8), moderate-rate dextrose infusion; and phase 4 (S9), discontinuation of fluids for 24 hours. In phase 3, dogs were allocated to 2 groups; 1 was administered dextrose at a rate comparable to total parental nutrition (40% of resting energy requirement; group A), and 1 was administered dextrose at rates equaling 70% to 90% of resting energy requirement (group B). Blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours.

Results—No dogs had clinically relevant sustained hyperglycemia. Maximum amplitude and elastic shear modulus were significantly lower at S6 than at S1 through S4. Concentration of D-dimer was significantly higher at S6 than at S1, S3, and S4 and significantly higher at S5 than at S3. Prothrombin time was significantly prolonged at S3, S5, S7, S8, and S9, compared with the value at S1. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged at S5 and S6, compared with values at S1, S2, S3, S4, and S9.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of dextrose to healthy dogs at rates comparable to or higher than those for conventional parenteral nutrition resulted in mild but clinically unimportant interference with coagulation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—71 veterinarians.

Procedures—An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance.

Results—Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)–associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners.

Animals—100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old.

Procedures—Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs.

Results—22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research