OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of 4 gas compositions at various volumes (simulated tidal volumes [VTs]) on accuracy of measurements obtained with 2 types of flow sensors and accuracy of gas volume delivery by a piston-driven ventilator.
SAMPLE 4 gas mixtures (medical air [21% O2:79% N2], > 95% O2, O2-enriched air [30% O2:70% N2], and heliox [30% O2:70% He]).
PROCEDURES For each gas mixture, reference VTs of 1 to 8 L were delivered into an anesthetic breathing circuit via calibration syringe; measurements recorded by a Pitot tube-based flow sensor (PTFS) connected to a multiparameter host anesthesia monitor and by a thermal mass flow and volume meter (TMFVM) were compared with the reference values. Following leak and compliance testing, the ventilator was preset to deliver each gas at VTs of 1 to 8 L into the calibration syringe. Effects of gas volume and composition on accuracy of VT measurement and delivery were assessed by ANOVA. Agreements between delivered and flow sensor-measured VT and preset versus ventilator-delivered VT were determined by Bland-Altman analysis.
RESULTS Flow sensor measurements were accurate and not influenced by gas composition. Mean measurement error ranges for the PTFS and TMFVM were −4.99% to 4.21% and −4.50% to 0.17%, respectively. There were no significant differences between ventilator-delivered and reference VTs regardless of gas volume or composition. Bland-Altman analysis yielded biases of −0.046 L, −0.007 L, −0.002 L, and 0.031 L for medical air, > 95% O2, O2-enriched air, and heliox, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The PTFS and the TMFVM measured VTs and the piston-driven ventilator delivered VTs with error rates of < 5% for all gas compositions and volumes tested.
To assess effects of nitrogen and helium on efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) for improving pulmonary mechanics and oxygen exchange in anesthetized horses.
6 healthy adult horses.
Horses were anesthetized twice in a randomized crossover study. Isoflurane-anesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency were ventilated with 30% oxygen and 70% nitrogen (treatment N) or heliox (30% oxygen and 70% helium; treatment H) as carrier gas. After 60 minutes, an ARM was performed. Optimal positive end-expiratory pressure was identified and maintained for 120 minutes. Throughout the experiment, arterial blood pressures, heart rate, peak inspiratory pressure, dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and Pao2 were measured. Variables were compared with baseline values and between treatments by use of an ANOVA.
The ARM resulted in significant increases in Pao2 and Cdyn and decreases in the alveolar-arterial gradient in the partial pressure of oxygen in all horses. After the ARM and during the subsequent 120-minute phase, mean values were significantly lower for treatment N than treatment H for Pao2 and Cdyn. Optimal positive end-expiratory pressure was consistently 15 cm H2O for treatment N, but it was 10 cm H2O (4 horses) and 15 cm H2O (2 horses) for treatment H.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
An ARM in anesthetized horses might be more efficacious in improving Pao2 and Cdyn when animals breathe helium instead of nitrogen as the inert gas.
To determine the accuracy of tidal volume (VT) delivery among 5 different models of large-animal ventilators when tested at various settings for VT delivery, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rate, and fresh gas flow (FGF) rate.
4 different models of pneumatically powered ventilators and 1 electrically powered piston-driven ventilator.
After a leak flow check, each ventilator was tested 10 times for each experimental setting combination of 5 levels of preset VT, 3 PIF rates, and 4 FGF rates. A thermal mass flow and volume meter was used as the gold-standard method to measure delivered VT. In addition, circuit systems of rubber versus polyvinyl chloride breathing hoses were evaluated with the piston-driven ventilator. Differences between preset and delivered VT (volume error [δVT]) were calculated as a percentage of preset VT, and ANOVA was used to compare results across devices. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses and the coefficient of determination (r) were used to assess potential associations between the δVT and the preset VT, PIF rate, and FGF rate.
For each combination of experimental settings, ventilators had δVT values that ranged from 1.2% to 22.2%. Mean ± SD δVT was 4.8 ± 2.5% for the piston-driven ventilator, compared with 6.6 ± 3.2%, 10.6 ± 2.9%, 13.8 ± 2.97%, and 15.2 ± 2.6% for the 4 pneumatic ventilators. The δVT increased with higher PIF rates (r = 0.69), decreased with higher FGF rates (r = 0.62), and decreased with higher preset VT (r = 0.58).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the tested ventilators all had δVT but that the extent of each of δVT varied among ventilators. Close monitoring of delivered VT with external flow and volume meters is warranted, particularly when pneumatic ventilators are used or when very precise VT delivery is required.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) with positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEPs) in anesthetized horses ventilated with oxygen or heliox (70% helium and 30% oxygen).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Volume-controlled ventilation was performed with heliox or oxygen (fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2] > 90%). Sixty minutes after mechanical ventilation commenced, an ARM with PEEP (0 to 30 cm H2O in steps of 5 cm H2O every 5 minutes, followed by incremental steps back to 0 cm H2O) was performed. Peak inspiratory pressure, dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), and Pao2 were measured during each PEEP. Indices of pulmonary oxygen exchange and alveolar dead space were calculated. Variables were compared with baseline values (PEEP, 0 cm H2O) and between ventilation gases by use of repeated-measures ANOVAs.
RESULTS For both ventilation gases, ARM significantly increased pulmonary oxygen exchange indices and Cdyn. Mean ± SD Cdyn (506 ± 35 mL/cm H2O) and Pao2-to-Fio2 ratio (439 ± 36) were significantly higher and alveolar-arterial difference in Pao2 (38 ± 11 mm Hg) was significantly lower for heliox, compared with values for oxygen (357 ± 50 mL/cm H2O, 380 ± 92, and 266 ± 88 mm Hg, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE An ARM in isoflurane-anesthetized horses ventilated with heliox significantly improved pulmonary oxygen exchange and respiratory mechanics by decreasing resistive properties of the respiratory system and reducing turbulent gas flow in small airways.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of 10 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung aeration and gas exchange in mechanically ventilated sheep during general anesthesia induced and maintained with propofol.
Animals—10 healthy adult Bergamasca sheep.
Procedures—Sheep were sedated with diazepam (0.4 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (5 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with propofol via constant rate infusion (0.4 mg/kg/min). Muscular paralysis was induced by administration of vecuronium (25 μg/kg, bolus IV) to facilitate mechanical ventilation. After intubation, sheep were positioned in right lateral recumbency and mechanically ventilated with pure oxygen and zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP). After 60 minutes, 10 cm H2O of PEEP was applied for 20 minutes. Spiral computed tomography of the thorax was performed, and data were recorded for hemodynamic and gas exchange variables and indicators of respiratory mechanics after 15 (T15), 30 (T30), and 60 (T60) minutes of ZEEP and after 20 minutes of PEEP (TPEEP). Computed tomography images were analyzed to determine the extent of atelectasis before and after PEEP application.
Results—At TPEEP, the volume of poorly aerated and atelectatic compartments was significantly smaller than at T15, T30, and T60, which indicated that there was PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment and clearance of anesthesia-induced atelectasis. Arterial oxygenation and static respiratory system compliance were significantly improved by use of PEEP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pulmonary atelectasis can develop in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep breathing pure oxygen; application of 10 cm H2O of PEEP significantly improved lung aeration and gas exchange.
Objective—To determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of various cyclooxygenase selectivities on hemostasis and prostaglandin expression in dogs.
Animals—8 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Dogs received aspirin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 10 days each, with an interval of at least 14 days between treatments. On days 0 and 10, blood was collected for platelet aggregation assays, thrombelastography, and measurement of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2, platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and free serum TXB2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F (PGF)-1α concentrations.
Results—Platelet aggregation decreased after treatment with aspirin and carprofen, whereas significant changes from baseline were not detected for the other drugs tested. Thrombelastograms obtained after treatment with carprofen revealed decreased maximum amplitude and α-angle, suggesting hypocoagulability. Maximum amplitude and coagulation index increased after treatment with deracoxib. Plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 decreased after treatment with carprofen or deracoxib, and platelet TXB2 production increased after treatment with aspirin. Serum concentrations of the prostacyclin metabolite 6-keto-PGF-1α did not change significantly after treatment with any of the drugs, although the ratio of free TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF-1α decreased slightly after treatment with carprofen and increased slightly after treatment with deracoxib.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At the dosages tested, treatment with meloxicam affected platelet function minimally in dogs with osteoarthritis. Treatment with carprofen decreased clot strength and platelet aggregation. Clot strength was increased after treatment with deracoxib.
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane (MACDES) and effects on cardiovascular variables in positive-pressure ventilated sheep.
ANIMALS 13 adult female sheep.
PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with desflurane. After a 30-minute equilibration at an end-tidal concentration of desflurane (etDES) of 10.5%, an electrical stimulus (5 Hz/ms and 50 mA) was applied for 1 minute or until gross purposeful movement occurred. The etDES was then changed by 0.5% (modified up-down method), depending on whether a positive motor response had been elicited, and stimulation was repeated. The MACDES was the etDES midway between a positive and negative response. After MACDES was determined, etDES was increased to 1.3 and 1.6 MACDES. Animals were allowed to equilibrate for 15 minutes, and cardiovascular, blood gas, acid-base, and hematologic variables were measured. Times to induction of anesthesia, extubation, attainment of sternal position, and standing and duration of anesthesia were recorded.
RESULTS Mean ± SD MACDES was 9.81 ± 0.79%. Times to intubation, extubation, and standing were 4.81 ± 2.21 minutes, 14.09 ± 4.05 minutes, and 32.4 ± 12.5 minutes, respectively. Duration of anesthesia was 226 ± 22 minutes. Heart rate increased significantly at induction of anesthesia but otherwise remained at preanesthetic rates. Arterial blood pressures progressively decreased with increasing etDES; pressures increased slightly only in response to noxious stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The MACDES determined here compared favorably with that determined for other sheep populations and indicated similar anesthetic potency as in other species. Desflurane caused dose-dependent arterial hypotension, which indicated the need for careful blood pressure monitoring.
Procedures—Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen. Prior to surgery, a combination of 1.0% lidocaine solution with 0.25% bupivacaine solution was administered either into the lumbosacral epidural space (11 dogs) or perineurally along the femoral and sciatic nerves (11). Intraoperative nociception was assumed if heart rate or systolic blood pressure increased by > 10% from baseline, in which case fentanyl (2 μg/kg [0.9 μg/lb], IV) was administered as rescue analgesia. Following recovery from anesthesia, signs of postoperative pain were assessed every 30 minutes for 360 minutes from the time of local anesthetic administration via the modified Glasgow pain scale. Patients with scores > 5 (scale, 0 to 20) received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) as rescue analgesia and were then withdrawn from further pain scoring.
Results—Treatment groups did not differ significantly in the number fentanyl boluses administered for intraoperative rescue analgesia. Time to administration of first postoperative rescue analgesia was comparable between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in baseline pain scores, nor were there significant differences at any other point during the postoperative period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks provided intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia similar to epidural anesthesia in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.
Objective—To compare the effect of 2 concentrations of oxygen in inspired gas (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] 1.0 or 0.4) on pulmonary aeration and gas exchange in dogs during inhalation anesthesia.
Animals—20 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Following administration of acepromazine and morphine, anesthesia was induced in each dog with thiopental and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (100% group; n = 10) or a mixture of 40% oxygen and air (40% group; 10). Dogs were placed in dorsal recumbency and were mechanically ventilated. After surgery, spiral computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed and PaO2, PaCO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (P[A–a]O2) were assessed. The lung CT images were analyzed, and the extent of hyperinflated (−1,000 to −901 Hounsfield units [HUs]), normally aerated (−900 to −501 HUs), poorly aerated (−500 to −101 HUs), or nonaerated (−100 to +100 HUs) areas was determined.
Results—Compared with the 100% oxygen group, the normally aerated lung area was significantly greater and the poorly aerated and nonaerated areas were significantly smaller in the 40% oxygen group. The time to CT (duration of surgery) was similar in both groups. Although PaCO2 was similar in both groups, PaO2 and P(A–a)O2 were significantly higher in the 100% oxygen group. In both groups, pulmonary atelectasis developed preferentially in caudal lung fields.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, mechanical ventilation with 40% oxygen appeared to maintain significantly better lung aeration and gas exchange than ventilation with 100% oxygen.