Objective—To determine the macroscopic effects of topical application of taurolidine on second intention healing of experimentally induced wounds in rats.
Animals—32 adult Sprague-Dawley female rats.
Procedures—In each rat, 2 skin wounds were created in the lumbar area. Groups of 7 rats were assigned to have 1 wound treated topically with hydroxycellulose gel (HDCG), 2% taurolidine in HDCG (T-HDCG), 2% taurolidine–sodium citrate solution, or bacitracin-neomycin-polymyxin B ointment; the other wound was not treated. Four control rats (8 untreated wounds) were used. Wounds were monitored for contraction, epithelialization, and complete healing at 4, 8, and 14 days after wound creation. The number of days to complete healing was also recorded for each wound.
Results—Compared with other treatments or untreated wounds, wounds treated with T-HDCG had decreased total healing at day 8 and decreased epithelialization and decreased total healing at day 14. Wounds treated with T-HDCG required approximately 3 days longer to completely heal than all other treated and untreated wounds. Application of bacitracinneomycin-polymyxin B ointment did not enhance wound healing. Mean time to complete healing of untreated wounds in all treatment and control groups was 10.00 to 10.14 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In rats, topical application of T-HDCG to wounds had a negative effect on second intention healing by delaying the epithelialization process. In mammals, generally, wounds treated topically with taurolidine may need to be treated and monitored for a longer period than other wounds treated with other common woundhealing compounds or untreated wounds.
Objective—To assess perioperative findings and postoperative complications and outcomes in dogs that had ectopic thyroid carcinomas with invasion into the hyoid apparatus and underwent tumor excision with partial hyoidectomy.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—5 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that had an ectopic neuroendocrine tumor with invasion into the hyoid apparatus and underwent tumor excision with partial hyoidectomy were reviewed for information regarding perioperative and postoperative findings and outcome. During surgery in each case, the thyrohyoid and ceratohyoid or epihyoid bones (depending on degree of hyoid apparatus involvement) were sharply transected, allowing en bloc removal of the tumor. The ipsilateral cut ends of the thyrohyoid and ceratohyoid or epihyoid bones (depending on which was cut) were sutured together with polypropylene suture in a simple interrupted pattern.
Results—All partial hyoidectomy procedures were completed without surgical or anesthetic complications. All 5 dogs were able to eat and drink between 7 and 24 hours after surgery, with no signs of dysphagia, ptyalism, or abnormal tongue carriage. Follow-up information was obtained over a period of 173 to 587 days after surgery for all 5 dogs; 4 dogs were still alive at last follow-up. One dog was euthanized 587 days after surgery because of lethargy, inappetence, and hypercalcemia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—From this limited series of cases, results suggested that partial resection of the hyoid apparatus during removal of ectopic thyroid carcinoma may be tolerated well and be associated with very good functional outcomes in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;245:1319–1324)
Objective—To determine the effects that routine histologic
processing has on the dimensions of samples
of normal skin of dogs and assess whether the inclusion
of a muscle or fascial layer in such samples alters
Sample Population—Skin samples obtained from 6
medium-sized adult dogs with grossly normal skin.
Procedure—From each dog, skin samples (with or
without underlying fascia or muscle) were obtained
from 3 sites bilaterally (6 samples/dog) and processed
routinely for histologic evaluation; their dimensions
were measured at intervals during the experiment.
Results—As a result of processing, skin samples
decreased in size (combined percentage change in
length and width) and increased in thickness, compared
with their original dimensions. Samples without
fascia or muscle decreased in size by 21.1% to 32.0%
and increased in thickness by 45.1% to 75.8%. The
site of sample origin influenced processing-associated
changes in sample size but did not affect the
change in thickness. Decreases in dimensions did not
vary with inclusion of fascia but did vary with inclusion
of muscle. The change in thickness did not vary
with inclusion of a layer of fascia or muscle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Processing of
skin samples obtained from dogs for histologic evaluation
can cause changes in sample dimensions; samples
may decrease in length and width by as much as
32% and increase in thickness by 75.8%, compared
with their original dimensions. The presence of muscle
in canine skin samples can restrict the amount of
shrinkage in length or width associated with processing.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:500–505)
Osteosarcoma frequently affects the proximal humerus in dogs. In veterinary medicine, no therapeutic option for the treatment of osteosarcoma satisfactorily preserves limb function. 3D-printed personalized endoprosthesis offers a promising treatment option. Morphometric data, necessary for the design of the endoprosthesis, are currently lacking in canine patients. Our objective was to acquire the morphometric data necessary to refine the design of the endoprosthesis.
All muscles were successfully identified with data consistent with the dissected cadaveric data. Certain muscles were more challenging to isolate on MRI, namely the heads of the triceps brachii, superficial pectoral, and latissimus dorsi. The relative distribution of muscle volumes was similar to historical data. Muscle tissue density was not significantly affected by freezing (1.059 g/cm3).
MRI is a useful tool to collect morphometric data but imperfect if used alone. This approach was the first attempt to validate more general morphometric data that could be used to refine the design of custom 3D-printed prostheses for limb-sparing of the proximal humerus. Further imaging studies are warranted to refine our model.
OBJECTIVE To determine survival times of selected dogs with metastatic (stage III) osteosarcoma, whether disease-free interval (DFI) was associated with survival time after diagnosis of stage III disease (ie, stage III survival time), and whether a survival benefit of metastasectomy existed.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 194 client-owned dogs treated for histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma from 1997 through 2009.
PROCEDURES Dogs were included if they had stage I or II osteosarcoma at the time of initial evaluation, had amputation of the affected appendage and ≥ 1 dose of chemotherapy afterward, and developed metastasis within the follow-up period or prior to death. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, primary tumor location, clinical and laboratory findings, whether metastasectomy was performed, and outcome. Various factors were examined for associations with outcome.
RESULTS Dogs that received no treatment for the metastasis had a median survival time between 49 and 57 days after diagnosis of stage III osteosarcoma. Duration of the preceding DFI had no association with this period. Metastasectomy alone was associated with a longer median stage III survival time (232 days) than no metastasectomy (49 days). Among all dogs identified as qualifying for pulmonary metastasectomy on the basis of < 3 pulmonary nodules visible on thoracic radiographs and a DFI > 275 days (n = 21), a survival advantage was also identified for those that actually received pulmonary metastasectomy (6).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Preceding DFI had no influence on survival time of dogs with stage III osteosarcoma. Metastasectomy was associated with an increase in survival time for selected dogs.
To determine the incidence of histologic grade shift (alteration of grade relative to the original tumor) in recurrent canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and mast cell tumor (MCT), and to determine the level of agreement between blinded pathologist review and original histology interpretation of STS and MCT grades.
15 dogs with recurrent cutaneous/subcutaneous STS and 5 dogs with recurrent cutaneous MCT. All included dogs underwent excision of both the primary and recurrent tumors and had tumor samples available for review.
The medical records and histology database from a single institution were reviewed, and data were recorded and analyzed. A single board-certified veterinary pathologist performed blinded evaluation of all excisional tumor samples, including both primary and recurrent disease, and these were evaluated independently and in conjunction with initial pathologic diagnoses.
Based on single pathologist review, 7 of 15 (46.7%) dogs with recurrent STS had grade shift characterized by a higher or lower recurrent tumor grade in 4 of 7 and 3 of 7 cases, respectively, and 1 of 5 dogs with recurrent MCT had grade shift characterized by an increased grade of the recurrent tumor. Variability in reported grade between original histology report and pathologist review occurred for 13 of 30 (43.3%) STS excisional biopsy samples and 0 of 10 MCT excisional biopsy samples.
Grade shift has been reported in multiple tumor types in people and has the potential to alter prognosis and treatment recommendations. This is the first study to document this phenomenon in dogs. Additional large-scale studies are needed to determine factors associated with grade shift as well as prognostic significance of grade shift for recurrent canine STS and MCT.
To describe the clinical characteristics, procedural techniques, complications, and outcomes of dogs and cats undergoing any of the following modified hemipelvectomy techniques: concurrent partial sacrectomy and/or partial vertebrectomy, osseous excision crossing midline, and reconstruction without the use of local musculature.
23 client-owned animals (20 dogs and 3 cats) that underwent modified hemipelvectomy techniques. Animals that underwent traditional (nonmodified) hemipelvectomy techniques were excluded.
The medical records of 3 academic institutions were reviewed, and data were recorded and analyzed.
Modified hemipelvectomy was performed with partial sacrectomy and/or vertebrectomy in 11 dogs, excision crossing pelvic midline with concurrent limb amputation in 5 dogs and 2 cats, and closure without use of native muscle or mesh in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Surgery was performed for tumor excision in all cases. Excision was reported as complete in 16 of 23, incomplete in 6 of 23, and not recorded in 1 of 23 animals. All animals survived to discharge. Only animals undergoing partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy (4/11) experienced postoperative mobility concerns. Major intra- or post-operative complications (grades 3 and 4) occurred in 2 dogs that underwent partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy, and 1 of these animals experienced a complication that resulted in death. The median time to death or last follow-up was 251 days (range, 3 to 1,642).
The modified hemipelvectomy techniques reported in this cohort were overall well tolerated with good functional outcomes. These findings support the use of these modified hemipelvectomy techniques in dogs and cats, and previous notions regarding tolerable hemipelvectomy procedures should be reconsidered. However, additional studies with larger numbers of patients undergoing modified hemipelvectomy techniques are needed to gain more information.
Case Description—3 alpaca crias and cadavers of an alpaca cria and a llama cria were evaluated for evidence of esophageal dysfunction.
Clinical Findings—All 5 crias were between 3 and 5 months of age when clinical signs developed, and all had a thin body condition when examined. Clinical signs included coughing, regurgitation, and grossly visible esophageal peristaltic waves. A barium esophagram was used to diagnose esophageal obstruction, megaesophagus, and a vascular ring anomaly (VRA). Fluoroscopy was used to evaluate deglutition, esophageal peristalsis, and the extent of esophageal dilation in 1 alpaca cria. A persistent right aortic arch was identified in 1 alpaca cria, and a left aortic arch with right ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum and an aberrant right subclavian artery were identified in the 4 remaining crias.
Treatment and Outcome—Surgical correction of the VRA was attempted in the 3 live alpaca crias. It was complicated by the conformation and location of each VRA and inaccurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRAs before surgery. Treatment was universally unsuccessful because of intraoperative complications and the persistence of clinical signs after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Megaesophagus is typically an idiopathic condition in camelids. However, these findings suggested that camelids with esophageal dysfunction during the neonatal period may have a VRA. The prognosis is grave for camelids with VRA, and accurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRA via the use of advanced imaging techniques (eg, angiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) may improve the success of surgical intervention.
Objective—To determine whether hematologic and
serum biochemical values for blood samples obtained
from cats via vascular access ports (VAP) are comparable
to those for samples obtained by direct venipuncture.
Animals—14 healthy cats.
Procedure—A VAP was surgically implanted in a jugular
vein in each cat. Blood samples were obtained from the
VAP and by direct venipuncture of the contralateral jugular
vein 10 weeks after VAP placement. Results of
hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were
compared by use of a paired t-test. The P value to reject
the null hypothesis was adjusted to account for multiple
comparisons by using the Bonferroni procedure in which
the nominal P-to-reject value is divided by the number of
comparisons (0.05/24 = 0.002).
Results—Paired samples (VAP and venipuncture)
obtained 10 weeks after VAP placement were evaluated
for each cat. Of the 24 measured analytes, only
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
differed significantly (P < 0.001 for all 3) between VAP
and venipuncture samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that samples obtained from VAP are suitable for routine
hematologic monitoring of feline cancer patients.
Sample hemolysis may account for a slight increase in
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
obtained from VAP samples. However, the values of
variables most critical for monitoring of patients receiving
chemotherapy (ie, mature neutrophil and platelet
counts) are comparable. If proper techniques are used,
VAP may be used for administration of chemotherapy as
well as for blood collection in cats undergoing cancer
treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:482–485)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded. Outcome data were obtained, including postoperative complications, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time.
RESULTS Complications occurred in 12 of 61 (19.7%) cats treated with unilateral mastectomy, 5 of 14 (35.7%) cats treated with staged bilateral mastectomy, and 13 of 32 (40.6%) cats treated with single-session bilateral mastectomy. Complications were significantly more likely to occur in cats undergoing bilateral versus unilateral mastectomy. Median progression-free survival time was longer for cats treated with bilateral mastectomy (542 days) than for cats treated with unilateral mastectomy (289 days). Significant risk factors for disease progression included unilateral mastectomy, tumor ulceration, lymph node metastasis, and tumors arising in the fourth mammary gland. Significant risk factors for disease-specific death included lymph node metastasis and development of regional or distant metastasis. Among cats that did not develop metastasis, unilateral mastectomy was a significant risk factor for disease-specific death. Treatment with chemotherapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease-specific death.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported bilateral mastectomy for the treatment of mammary adenocarcinoma in cats to improve progression-free and disease-specific survival time. Performing bilateral mastectomy in a staged fashion may help to decrease the complication rate.