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  • Author or Editor: Bernard F. Feldman x
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Summary

Two populations of dogs with cutaneous hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas were evaluated retrospectively. One population consisted of 96 dogs seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The second population consisted of 116 dogs that had skin biopsy specimens submitted to a private veterinary diagnostic laboratory for histologic diagnosis. Nine dogs from the teaching hospital and 2 dogs, from which samples had been submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory, developed hemostatic defects in association with the tumors. Hemostatic defects included hemorrhage directly from the tumor, thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and findings associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Because bleeding during surgery can develop in animals with hemostatic defects, dogs with one or more tumors suspected of being vascular in origin should have platelet numbers and hemostatic analytes evaluated prior to surgery, especially if petechiae or ecchymoses are evident.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

We investigated changes in hemostatic function after infusion of 6% dextran 70 (high molecular weight dextran) at 2 rates. Six healthy dogs underwent 3 regimens: 20 ml of dextran/kg of body weight administered in 1 hour (trial A), 20 ml of dextran/kg administered in 30 minutes (trial B) and 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control administered over 1 hour to achieve hemodilution equivalent to that for 20 ml of dextran/kg (trial C). Before and at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after the start of trials A and B, we measured pcv, total solids (ts) concentration, amount of von Willebrand factor antigen (vWf:Ag), factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), platelet retention in a glass bead column, and buccal mucosa bleeding time (bmbt). Values were not obtained at 8 and 24 hours for trial C. Saline-induced changes in hemostasis were significant (P < 0.05) from baseline throughout the sample collection period. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between trial A and control were observed for vWf:Ag, VIII:C, bmbt, aptt, ts, and pcv values at 2 hours, and for VIII:C at 4 hours. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between trial B and control were observed for aptt, ts, and pcv values at 2 hours, and for vWf:Ag, VIII:C, bmbt, aptt, ts, and pcv values at 4 hours. During trials A and B, mean values of analytes infrequently deviated from reference intervals, and clinical signs of bleeding were not observed in any dog. Data for the dextran infusions paralleled each other and had a tendency to normalize, infrequently reaching baseline by 24 hours. Differences in overall hemostatic function were not detected between dextran infusions. Dextran 70 at a dosage of 20 ml/kg induces minimal hemostatic abnormalities when infused over 30 or 60 minutes to clinically normal dogs, but may precipitate bleeding in dogs with marginal hemostatic function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of Carolina rinse solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, on microvascular permeability and morphology of the equine jejunum after low-flow ischemia and reperfusion.

Animals—20 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Under anesthesia, full-thickness biopsy specimens of a distal portion of the jejunum were obtained for baseline measurements. In addition to a control segment, 2 jejunal segments were identified as sham-operated or experimental segments. Experimental segments underwent 60 minutes of low-flow ischemia and 3.5 hours of reperfusion. Treatments were as follows: U-74389G (3 mg/kg, IV; 6 horses), DMSO (20 mg/kg, IV; 6) diluted in 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, local perfusion (via jejunal artery) of Carolina rinse solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4), and local perfusion of lactated Ringer's solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4).

Results—Jejunal microvascular permeability was significantly lower after treatment with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO, compared with U-74389G or lactated Ringer's solution treatments. After DMSO treatment, serosal- and submucosal-layer edema was significantly increased in experimental segments, compared with control or sham-operated segments; however, edema increases were significantly less than for lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Significant decreases in intestinal wet weight-to-dry weight ratio were found following Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments, compared with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Edema formation and leukocyte infiltration in jejunal segments of horses treated with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G were increased, compared with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carolina rinse solution and DMSO may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the equine jejunum. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:525–536)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. Initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and Baermann fecal flotation. In 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secretions from the lavaged lung segment were taken for culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasma. Bronchial lavage fluid (5 sequential 10-ml aliquots of normal saline solution) was pooled and filtered with cotton gauze. The unspun sample was used for determination of a total nucleated cell count. Lavage fluid was cytocentrifuged and 500 cells/slide were scored for determination of the cellular differential. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase and concentrations of total protein and IgG within the supernatant were measured, and assays were performed to detect the presence of IgA and IgM. Complete histologic evaluation of the lavaged lung of each of 6 random-source cats was performed after differential cell counting revealed 18% eosinophils within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from this group.

Alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells encountered; however, a quarter of all cells recovered were eosinophils. A significant relationship was not found between the abundance of eosinophils in the lavage fluid, and either isolation of aerobic bacteria, high total nucleated cell counts, total protein concentrations, or activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Histologic evaluation of the lungs of 5 of 6 random-source cats revealed normal lungs in 2 cats, and minimal abnormal change in 3 others. Evaluation of the lungs from 1 random source cat revealed acute, mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis. We conclude that large numbers of eosinophils may be retrieved from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of autologous fibrinogen (AF) and absorbable barrier membrane (ABM) on periodontal healing of canine experimental grade-III furcation defects.

Animals

18 conditioned, laboratory-source, adult Beagles.

Procedure

Defects were developed bilaterally at the second and fourth premolars and maintained for 12 weeks. Defects were treated with AF, ABM, AF and ABM, or debridement. Digital subtraction radiography, histologic evaluation, and histomorphometric analysis of defect healing was done at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment to determine percentage increases in bone volume, height, area, and length of periodontal regeneration along the perimeter of the defect.

Results

Comparison of defects at post-treatment intervals indicated significantly greater healing of debridement and AF-treated defects, compared with ABM-treated defects at 3 months; however, by 6 months, there were no significant differences in defect healing for all histomorphometric variables. Defects treated with ABM were associated with significantly less root ankylosis than other treatments. Defects treated with debridement had significantly greater increases in bone volume at 6 months after treatment, compared with groups treated with ABM. There was a significant correlation between regenerated bone area, bone volume, and periodontal regeneration for all treatments at 3 and 6 months after treatment.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Use of AF and ABM did not enhance the amount of periodontal healing, compared with debridement only. The ABM-treated defects were essentially devoid of root ankylosis. Grade-III furcation defects may respond equally well to conservative periodontal surgery or guided tissue regenerative techniques. The prevention of root ankylosis is a substantial benefit favoring this latter method of treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1329-1338)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research