Objective—To determine the effects of long-term oral levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) administration on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid gland function, clinicopathologic variables, and echocardiographic examination measurements in adult euthyroid horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult mares.
Procedures—Horses received L-T4 (48 mg/d) orally for 48 weeks. Every 4 weeks, physical examinations were performed; blood samples were collected for CBC, plasma biochemical analyses, and assessments of serum total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) concentrations. Plasma creatine kinase MB activity and cardiac troponin I concentration were also measured. Echocardiographic examinations were performed before and at 16, 32, and 48 weeks during the treatment period.
Results—During the treatment period, mean body weight decreased significantly; heart rate varied significantly, but the pattern of variation was not consistent. Significant time effects were detected for certain clinicopathologic variables, but mean values remained within reference ranges. Cardiac troponin I was only detectable in 8 of 24 plasma samples (concentration range, 0.01 to 0.03 ng/mL). Serum creatine kinase MB activity did not change significantly over time. Compared with the pretreatment value, 5.4-, 4.0-, and 3.7-fold increases in mean serum tT4 concentrations were detected at 16, 32, and 48 weeks, respectively. Some cardiac measurements changed significantly over time, but mean values remained within published reference ranges. Mean fractional shortening was lower than the pretreatment mean value at 16 and 32 weeks.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, long-term oral administration of 48 mg of L-T4/d significantly increased serum tT4 concentrations and did not appear to adversely affect health.
Objective—To determine the effects of a 24-hour
infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid
(IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations,
and other clinicopathologic variables in
healthy neonatal foals.
Animals—4 healthy 4-day-old foals.
Procedure—An IERF was administered to each foal
at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for
24 hours. Body weight was measured before and
after the infusion period. Urine was collected via
catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were
collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine
production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium,
potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and
serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations;
urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR);
transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage
creatinine clearance (Crcl) of electrolytes were
recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the
infusion period. Immediately after the study period,
net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from
baseline values were calculated.
Results—Compared with baseline values, urine and
serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine
and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Crcl of
sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various
time points during the infusion; urine production did
not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG,
serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium
had significantly decreased from baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic
concentration of sodium may not be appropriate
for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid
therapy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1123–1129)
Objective—To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa.
Sample Population—Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses.
Procedures—NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS).
Results—Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of < 4.0, propionic and butyric acids at a pH of ≤ 4.0, and valeric acid at a pH of ≤ 7.0 induced a concentration-dependent effect on reduction in these same values. Values for Isc returned to baseline (recovery of sodium transport) after addition of calcium carbonate in tissues exposed to all concentrations of VFAs except the higher concentrations of valeric acid at a pH of ≤ 4.0. Histologic examination revealed cell swelling in the mucosal layers below and adjacent to the stratum corneum in tissues exposed to HCl and VFAs at a pH of ≤ 4.0.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VFAs, especially acetic acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of ≤ 4.0 appear to be important in the pathogenesis of NG mucosal ulcers in horses.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.
Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.
Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial blood gas variables were measured before (baseline) and during unilateral and bilateral nasopharyngeal delivery of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mL of oxygen/kg/min.
Results—No adverse reactions were associated with administration of supplemental oxygen except at the highest flow rate, at which the foals became agitated. At individual flow rates, significant and dose-dependent increases in Fio2, Pao2, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (Sao2) were detected, compared with baseline values. Comparison of unilateral and bilateral delivery of oxygen at similar cumulative flow rates revealed no differences in evaluated variables.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulae appeared to be a highly effective means of increasing Fio2, Pao2, and Sao2 in neonatal foals. These findings may provide guidance for implementation of oxygen treatment in hypoxemic neonatal foals. (Am J Vet Med 2010;71:1081–1088)
Objective—To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old.
Study Design—Prospective study.
Procedures—Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.
Results—Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.