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  • Author or Editor: Barton W. Rohrbach x
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Abstract

Objective—To measure antibody titers against Leptospira interrogans in serum and vitreous humor and determine the prevalence of L interrogans in vitreous humor of horses with recurrent uveitis.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—242 horses (270 eyes) with recurrent uveitis undergoing vitrectomy and 39 control horses (54 eyes) without any history or clinical signs of recurrent uveitis undergoing euthanasia or enucleation for unrelated reasons.

Procedure—Serum and vitreous humor were tested for antibodies against 13 serovars of L interrogans. Vitreous humor was submitted for leptospiral culture; isolates were typed to the serogroup level.

ResultsLeptospira interrogans was isolated from vitreous humor from 120/229 (52%) horses (126/252 [50%] eyes) with recurrent uveitis but was not isolated from vitreous humor from 36 eyes of 21 control horses. Duration of recurrent uveitis was ≥ 1 year for 45 of the 120 (38%) horses from which the organism was isolated. Geometric mean antibody titers against L interrogans in the vitreous humor and serum of horses with recurrent uveitis were 1:1,332 and 1:186, respectively. Only 91 of 120 (76%) horses from which the organism was isolated had a 4-fold or greater difference between serum and vitreous humor antibody titers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that persistent ocular infection with L interrogans is common in horses with recurrent uveitis. A 4- fold increase in vitreous humor versus serum antibody titers may not be a sensitive test for the diagnosis of L interrogans-induced recurrent uveitis. We hypothesize that the immune component of recurrent uveitis can be directly induced and maintained by persistent infection of the eye with L interrogans. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:795–800)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the annual and overall proportion of diagnoses of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs and identify breeds at increased risk for CPSS.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—2,400 dogs with CPSS from veterinary teaching hospitals that reported to the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) from January 1, 1980 to February 28, 2002.

Procedure—The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS was calculated for all dogs and each breed recorded in the VMDB annually and for the 22.2-year period. Odds ratios and adjusted confidence intervals were calculated for breeds with at least 100 accessions by comparing odds of each breed with a diagnosis of CPSS with that of mixed-breed dogs.

Results—Congenital portosystemic shunts were reported in 0.18% of all dogs and 0.05% of mixedbreed dogs. The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS increased from 5 in 10,000 dogs in 1980 to 5 in 1,000 dogs in 2001. Yorkshire Terriers had the greatest total number of diagnoses of CPSS. Thirty-three breeds were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The greatest proportions of diagnoses were found in Havanese (3.2%), Yorkshire Terriers (2.9%), Maltese (1.6%), Dandie Dinmont Terriers (1.6%), and Pugs (1.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Certain breeds appear to be at increased risk for CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The increased odds ratios among specific breeds support the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition for CPSS. Clients and veterinarians should consider appropriate diagnostic tests for dogs with clinical signs and those used for breeding from breeds with increased risk of CPSS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1636–1639)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify practices associated with failure of heartworm prophylaxis among dog and kennel owners and dog trainers.

Design—Online survey and mail-in questionnaire.

Sample—708 members of a national hunting dog club.

Procedures—Heartworm prevention practices used by respondents that reported failure of prophylaxis were compared with practices used by respondents that reported success.

Results—Univariate analyses indicated failure of heartworm prophylaxis was inversely related to the number of dogs under a respondent's care. Year-round prophylactic practice was not significantly associated with reduced odds of failure, and efforts to control exposure to mosquitoes were similar among the comparison groups. Respondents reporting prophylaxis failure were more likely to test for heartworm infection ≥ 1 time/y, compared with those reporting success. In a multivariable analysis, residence south of the Virginia-North Carolina state line (ie, the 37th geographic parallel), testing for heartworm infection < once a year when the test was administered prior to April 1, and keeping dogs outdoors for longer periods at dusk, at dawn, or after dark were associated with increased odds of prophylaxis failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should stress the importance of annual heartworm testing 6 to 7 months after the last possible date of exposure to heartworm, regardless of whether a dog receives prophylactic treatment year-round. Reducing the number of hours dogs spend outdoors at dusk, at dawn, or after dark may reduce the odds of heartworm disease even when dogs are given preventive treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of incompatible crossmatch results in dogs without a history of prior RBC transfusion and to evaluate changes in Hct following RBC administration for transfusion-naïve dogs that did and did not have crossmatching performed.

DESIGN Retrospective study.

ANIMALS 169 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, pretransfusion Hct or PCV, and crossmatching results where applicable. Dogs that underwent major crossmatching (n = 149) as part of pretransfusion screening were each crossmatched with 3 potential donors. Donor blood was obtained from a commercial source and tested negative for dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs) 1.1, 1.2, and 7 but positive for DEA 4. Mean change in Hct after transfusion was compared between crossmatch-tested dogs (57/91 that subsequently underwent RBC transfusion) and 20 other dogs that underwent RBC transfusion without prior crossmatching by statistical methods.

RESULTS 25 of 149 (17%) dogs evaluated by crossmatching were incompatible with 1 or 2 of the 3 potential donors. All 149 dogs were compatible with ≥ 1 potential donor. Mean ± SD change in Hct after transfusion was significantly higher in dogs that had crossmatching performed (12.5 ± 8.6%) than in dogs that did not undergo crossmatching (9.0 ± 4.3%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated immunologic incompatibility can exist between first-time transfusion recipients and potential blood donor dogs. The clinical importance of these findings could not be evaluated, but considering the potential for immediate or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or shortened RBC life span, the authors suggest veterinarians consider crossmatching all dogs prior to transfusion when possible.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid (IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and other clinicopathologic variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals—4 healthy 4-day-old foals.

Design—Prospective study.

Procedure—An IERF was administered to each foal at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for 24 hours. Body weight was measured before and after the infusion period. Urine was collected via catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations; urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR); transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage creatinine clearance (Crcl) of electrolytes were recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the infusion period. Immediately after the study period, net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from baseline values were calculated.

Results—Compared with baseline values, urine and serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Crcl of sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various time points during the infusion; urine production did not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG, serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium had significantly decreased from baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic concentration of sodium may not be appropriate for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid therapy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1123–1129)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether treatment with a preparation of Propionibacterium acnes would improve pregnancy and live foal rates in mares with persistent endometritis.

Design—Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—95 mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis.

Procedures—Mares were treated with P acnes or placebo (both administered IV) on days 0, 2, and 6. No attempt was made to alter additional treatments administered by attending veterinarians. Information on breeding history, physical examination findings, results of cytologic examination and microbial culture of uterine samples, additional treatments administered, breeding dates, results of pregnancy examinations, whether a live foal was produced, and reactions to treatment was recorded.

Results—In multivariate logistic regression models, mare age, year of entry into the study, and first breeding within 8 days after first treatment with P acnes or placebo were significantly associated with pregnancy. Fewer number of cycles bred and younger age were significantly associated with delivery of a live foal in a separate multivariate analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that mares treated with P acnes were more likely to become pregnant and to deliver a live foal, compared with placebo-treated controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of P acnes as an adjunct to conventional treatments in mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis improved pregnancy and live foal rates. The optimal effect was detected in mares bred during the interval extending from 2 days before to 8 days after first treatment with P acnes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).

Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg; 10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until 20 hours after surgery.

Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02, respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia was not required by any of the cats receiving meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC, and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment required rescue analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy appeared to have less pain after surgery than those receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital.

Procedures—Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements.

Results—Oxacillin resistance increased among S intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, magnesium sulfate, and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO-MAC) in goats.

Animals—8 adult goats.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane delivered via face mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain normocapnia. After an appropriate equilibration period, baseline MAC (MACB) was determined and the following 4 treatments were administered IV: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (loading dose [LD], 30 mL/20 min; constant rate infusion [CRI], 60 mL/h), magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h), ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min), and magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h) combined with ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min); then MAC was redetermined.

Results—Ketamine significantly decreased ISOMAC by 28.7 ± 3.7%, and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate significantly decreased ISOMAC by 21.1 ± 4.1%. Saline solution or magnesium sulfate alone did not significantly change ISOMAC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate, at doses used in the study, decreased the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain anesthesia, verifying the clinical impression that ketamine decreases the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain surgical anesthesia. Magnesium, at doses used in the study, did not decrease ISOMAC or augment ketamine's effects on ISOMAC.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar–tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation.

Procedures—For all dogs, an inverse dynamics method was used to describe the motion of the pelvic limbs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Motion and energy patterns for the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in all 3 planes were compared among the 3 groups.

Results—Compared with corresponding variables for clinically normal dogs, the hip joint was more extended at the beginning of the stance phase in the sagittal plane for dogs that had a TPLO performed and the maximum power across the stifle joint in the frontal plane was greater for dogs that had an LFS procedure performed. Otherwise, variables in all planes were similar among the 3 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gait characteristics of the pelvic limb did not differ between dogs that underwent TPLO and dogs that underwent an LFS procedure for CCL repair and were similar to those of clinically normal dogs. Both TPLO and LFS successfully provided long-term stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints of dogs with minimal alterations in gait.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research