Objective—To evaluate the effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose
(SCMC) or a hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose
membrane (HA membrane) on
healing of the small intestine in horses.
Animals—18 healthy adult horses.
Procedure—Midline celiotomy and 2 jejunal resection-
and-anastomosis surgeries were performed. In
treated horses, SCMC (n = 6) or a HA membrane (6)
was applied to the jejunum to cover the anastomosis.
There were 6 untreated control horses. Horses were
euthanatized 10 days after surgery. For each horse, 1
anastomosis was used for histologic examination,
and the second was used to determine intestinal
bursting strength. Intestinal bursting tension, serosal
granulation tissue, serosal fibrin deposition, and width
of the fibrous seal at the anastomosis were compared
Results—3 control horses had adhesions associated
with the anastomosis, but none of the treated
horses had adhesions associated with the anastomosis.
Mean thickness of fibrin deposited on the
serosal surfaces for the SCMC and HA-membrane
groups was significantly less than that for control
horses. Mean thickness of serosal granulation tissue,
width of fibrous seal between inverted musculature,
inflammatory cell infiltrate scores, and bursting
tension did not differ significantly among
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of SCMC
or application of a HA membrane to small intestinal
anastomoses in horses resulted in fewer adhesions
and decreased fibrin deposition, and it did not
adversely affect anastomotic healing. In horses at
increased risk for intra-abdominal adhesions, SCMC
or application of HA membranes may decrease the
frequency of adhesions without adversely affecting
healing of small intestinal anastomoses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:369–374)
Objective—To evaluate in vivo activityin dogs of
meloxicam or aspirin, previously shown in vitro to be a
selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (COX-1
sparing drug), or a nonselective COX inhibitor, respectively.
Animals—12 male dogs with unilateral osteoarthritis
of the stifle joint.
Procedure—Each dog was treated in a crossover
design with aspirin or meloxicam for 21 days.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were measured
at days 0 (baseline), 7, and 21 of each treatment
period in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood,
synovial fluid collected by arthrocentesis, and endoscopic
gastric mucosal biopsy specimens.
Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was evaluated in blood on
days 0, 7, and 21 of each treatment period.
Results—Aspirin administration significantly suppressed
PGE2 concentrations in blood, gastric
mucosa, synovial fluid, and suppressed TXB2 concentration
in blood at days 7 and 21. Meloxicam
administration significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations
in blood and synovial fluid at days 7 and
21, but had no effect on concentrations of TXB2 in
blood or PGE2 in gastric mucosa. Suppression of
LPS-stimulated PGE2 concentrations in blood and
synovial fluid by aspirin and meloxicam administration
is consistent with activity against the COX-2
isoenzyme. Suppression of concentrations of PGE2
in the gastric mucosa and TXB2 in blood by aspirin
administration is consistent with activity against
COX-1. Meloxicam, in contrast, had a minimal effect
on functions mediated by COX-1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam
acts in vivo in dogs as a COX-1 sparing drug on target
tissues by sparing gastric PGE2 synthesis while
retaining antiprostaglandin effects within inflamed
joints. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1527–1531)
Objective—To compare the outcomes of doublelayer
inverting anastomosis (DIA), single-layer anastomosis
(SLA), and single-layer anastomosis combined
with a hyaluronate membrane (SLA+HA-membrane)
with respect to stomal diameter, adhesion formation,
surgery time, and anastomotic healing in horses.
Animals—18 adult horses.
Procedure—Midline celiotomy and end-to-end anastomoses
were performed. In control horses (n = 6),
DIA was performed; in treated horses, SLA was performed
(6) or SLA+HA-membrane was performed (6).
Horses were euthanatized 21 days after surgery.
Abdominal adhesions were evaluated grossly and histologically.
Stomal diameters were measured ultrasonographically
and compared with adjacent luminal
diameters. Anastomotic healing was evaluated histologically
for fibrosis and inflammation, tissue alignment,
and inversion. Surgery times were recorded for
the anastomotic procedure and compared among
Results—There were significantly more adhesions in
the SLA group, compared with the DIA and SLA+HAmembrane
groups. Reduction in stomal diameters in
the DIA group was significantly greater than the SLA
and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Surgery times for
the DIA group were significantly greater than the SLA
and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Histologic findings
of fibrosis, inflammation, and mucosal healing were
similar among groups. There was significant tissue
inversion in the DIA group, compared with the 2 treatment
groups. Tissue alignment was not different
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a
SLA+HA-membrane was an effective small intestinal
anastomotic technique. This technique was faster to
perform and resulted in a larger stomal diameter,
compared with the DIA technique and significantly
fewer perianastomotic adhesions, compared with the
SLA technique. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1314–1319)