Objective—To evaluate short-term hemodynamic
effects of ecadotril in a model of congestive heart failure
Animals—6 conscious adult male dogs.
Procedures—Instruments were placed in dogs to
measure left ventricular, aortic, and atrial blood pressures.
Heart failure was induced by repeated coronary
embolization with latex microspheres. Four
times, and in random order, dogs were given vehicle
or active drug (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg of body weight) orally.
Hemodynamic variables, urine flow, and urinary
electrolyte excretion were measured before and 30,
90, and 150 minutes, and 10 and 21 hours after drug
Results—Changes in urine flow, heart rate, mean
arterial pressure, or peak positive and negative rate of
change in ventricular pressure were not apparent.
Urinary sodium excretion significantly increased in
response to the low and high doses of ecadotril but
not in response to the 10 mg/kg dose. Left ventricular
end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) consistently
decreased in dose- and time-dependent manner.
Maximal group-averaged reductions in LVEDP were
5.2, 8.1, and 10 mm Hg for the low, middle, and high
doses, respectively. The magnitude of the decrease
in LVEDP was not related to cumulative change in
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally
administered ecadotril reduced left ventricular filling
pressures in these dogs by a mechanism that does
not require a substantial diuretic effect. Ecadotril
may be effective for alleviating clinical signs in dogs
with left-sided heart failure and may be particularly
beneficial for use in dogs that are refractory to traditional
diuretic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To determine the effect of semen in urine specimens on urine protein concentration measured by means of dipstick analysis.
Sample Population—14 urine samples from 3 adult castrated male dogs and 14 semen samples from 7 adult sexually intact male dogs.
Procedures—Serial dilutions of the whole ejaculate or spermatozoa-free seminal fluid in urine were created, and unaltered and diluted urine samples were analyzed by means of a commercially available dipstick; pH and specific gravity of the samples were also measured. Spermatozoa and WBC counts of the semen samples and protein concentration of the seminal fluid were determined.
Results—Protein concentrations determined by means of dipstick analysis of urine samples to which whole ejaculate (dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:16, 1:64, and 1:256) or seminal fluid (dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:16, and 1:64) had been added were significantly higher than concentrations in unaltered urine samples. All 13 samples to which whole ejaculate was added at a dilution of 1:2 and 10 of 12 samples to which seminal fluid was added at a dilution of 1:2 were positive for blood on dipstick analysis. There was no significant linear correlation between spermatozoa or WBC count of the semen sample and protein concentration of the spermatozoa-free seminal fluid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that regardless of whether spermatozoa were present, semen contamination could result in false-positive results for protein and blood during dipstick analysis of urine samples from sexually intact male dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) after IV and oral administration to dogs and effects of TTM administration on trace mineral concentrations.
ANIMALS 8 adult Beagles and Beagle crossbreds (4 sexually intact males and 4 sexually intact females).
PROCEDURES Dogs received TTM (1 mg/kg) IV and orally in a randomized crossover study. Serum molybdenum and copper concentrations were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples obtained 0 to 72 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics was determined via noncompartmental analysis.
RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 4.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL, 30.7 ± 5.4 μg/mL•h, and 27.7 ± 6.8 hours, respectively. For oral administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, time to maximum concentration, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 3.0 ± 3.5 hours, 0.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL, 6.5 ± 8.0 μg/mL•h, and 26.8 ± 8.0 hours, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 21 ± 22%. Serum copper concentrations increased significantly after IV and oral administration. Emesis occurred after IV (2 dogs) and oral administration (3 dogs).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetics for TTM after a single IV and oral administration was determined for clinically normal dogs. Absorption of TTM after oral administration was variable. Increased serum copper concentrations suggested that TTM mobilized tissue copper. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of TTM in copper-associated chronic hepatitis of dogs.
Objective—To determine whether autologous jugular veins provide functional grafts with high 30-day patency rates in an experimental model of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting performed with a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure.
Animals—15 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—A segment of the left jugular vein was implanted between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to surgery, at day 4 to 7, and at day 30 after surgery. Selective angiograms were performed immediately after surgery and on day 30. Oximetric shunt calculations were made via terminal angiography prior to euthanasia. Gross and histologic evaluations of the grafts were conducted.
Results—Grafts were patent in 12 of 15 dogs 30 days after surgery as assessed via auscultation, color Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and histologic examination. Echocardiographic analysis revealed compensatory eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio was 1.5:1. Histologic evidence of endothelialization of the anastomotic sites and vein graft arterialization was detectable at 30 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autologous jugular vein grafts were effectively used to create a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt by use of a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure. High patency, ready accessibility, low cost, and theoretical adaptative remodeling during patient growth make autologous jugular vein grafts a valuable alternative to synthetic materials.
OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses.
PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses,
RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.