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SUMMARY

Objective

To investigate the potential allergenic role of the yeast Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs with clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis.

Animals

5 clinically normal nonatopic dogs, 10 atopic dogs with cytologic evidence of Malassezia dermatitis, and 12 atopic dogs without cytologic evidence of Malassezia dermatitis.

Procedure

A crude yeast extract was produced by disrupting the cell wall of M pachydermatis. The crude extract and 8 of its fractions, which were generated by fractionation in a high-performance liquid chromatography column, were injected along with 46 commercial allergens for intradermal allergy testing of normal and atopic sample populations. Significant difference between atopic populations was evaluated, using a threshold concentration of crude yeast extract that failed to induce wheal-and-flare responses in normal nonatopic dogs.

Results

Atopic dogs with cytologic evidence of Malassezia dermatitis had significantly greater wheal-and-flare reactions to intradermal injection of crude extract of M pachydermatis than did atopic dogs without cytologic evidence of Malassezia dermatitis.

Conclusions

It is concluded that M pachydermatis is capable of promoting type-1 hypersensitivity reactions in dogs with an atopic dermatitis phenotype.

Clinical Relevance

Currently, Malassezia dermatitis is principally managed by use of antifungal chemotherapy. Because the yeast appears to be a contributing allergen in dogs with atopic dermatitis, hyposensitization with M pachydermatis extracts may offer a future alternative to extended or repeated episodic administration of antifungals for extended control of recurrent infections. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:836–841)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate short-term hemodynamic effects of ecadotril in a model of congestive heart failure in dogs.

Animals—6 conscious adult male dogs.

Procedures—Instruments were placed in dogs to measure left ventricular, aortic, and atrial blood pressures. Heart failure was induced by repeated coronary embolization with latex microspheres. Four times, and in random order, dogs were given vehicle or active drug (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg of body weight) orally. Hemodynamic variables, urine flow, and urinary electrolyte excretion were measured before and 30, 90, and 150 minutes, and 10 and 21 hours after drug administration.

Results—Changes in urine flow, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, or peak positive and negative rate of change in ventricular pressure were not apparent. Urinary sodium excretion significantly increased in response to the low and high doses of ecadotril but not in response to the 10 mg/kg dose. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) consistently decreased in dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximal group-averaged reductions in LVEDP were 5.2, 8.1, and 10 mm Hg for the low, middle, and high doses, respectively. The magnitude of the decrease in LVEDP was not related to cumulative change in urine flow.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered ecadotril reduced left ventricular filling pressures in these dogs by a mechanism that does not require a substantial diuretic effect. Ecadotril may be effective for alleviating clinical signs in dogs with left-sided heart failure and may be particularly beneficial for use in dogs that are refractory to traditional diuretic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 334–339)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of semen in urine specimens on urine protein concentration measured by means of dipstick analysis.

Sample Population—14 urine samples from 3 adult castrated male dogs and 14 semen samples from 7 adult sexually intact male dogs.

Procedures—Serial dilutions of the whole ejaculate or spermatozoa-free seminal fluid in urine were created, and unaltered and diluted urine samples were analyzed by means of a commercially available dipstick; pH and specific gravity of the samples were also measured. Spermatozoa and WBC counts of the semen samples and protein concentration of the seminal fluid were determined.

Results—Protein concentrations determined by means of dipstick analysis of urine samples to which whole ejaculate (dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:16, 1:64, and 1:256) or seminal fluid (dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:16, and 1:64) had been added were significantly higher than concentrations in unaltered urine samples. All 13 samples to which whole ejaculate was added at a dilution of 1:2 and 10 of 12 samples to which seminal fluid was added at a dilution of 1:2 were positive for blood on dipstick analysis. There was no significant linear correlation between spermatozoa or WBC count of the semen sample and protein concentration of the spermatozoa-free seminal fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that regardless of whether spermatozoa were present, semen contamination could result in false-positive results for protein and blood during dipstick analysis of urine samples from sexually intact male dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To define the extent to which Malassezia organisms can be recovered from the skin of clinically normal dogs and to assess differences in organism recovery related to anatomic sampling site and to method of collection.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Animals

19 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

The number of Malassezia pachydermatis organisms were determined in fungal cultures of samples obtained from the skin of clinically normal dogs, using an adhesive tape method to obtain samples from 10 sites/dog. Additionally, 3 methods (direct impression, swabbing technique, and superficial skin scraping) that are commonly used for obtaining samples for cytologic examination were evaluated.

Results

Malassezia organisms were found in low numbers as part of the microflora of the skin of clinically normal dogs. Number of organisms differed significantly for various anatomic locations (chin, highest number; inguinal and axillary regions, lowest number). Malassezia organisms were identified more frequently by use of adhesive tape and fungal culturing than by the methods used for cytologic examination. However, comparing methods used for obtaining samples for cytologic examination with each other, marked differences were not detected in our ability to recover yeast organisms among the 3 techniques.

Clinical Implications

Although Malassezia spp is part of the microflora of the skin of clinically normal dogs, it is extremely difficult to detect the organism by any of the 3 sampling methods used for sample collection for cytologic examination. Therefore, anatomic site and method of sample collection should be considered when attempting to make a diagnosis of Malassezia dermatitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1048–1051)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether autologous jugular veins provide functional grafts with high 30-day patency rates in an experimental model of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting performed with a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure.

Animals—15 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—A segment of the left jugular vein was implanted between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to surgery, at day 4 to 7, and at day 30 after surgery. Selective angiograms were performed immediately after surgery and on day 30. Oximetric shunt calculations were made via terminal angiography prior to euthanasia. Gross and histologic evaluations of the grafts were conducted.

Results—Grafts were patent in 12 of 15 dogs 30 days after surgery as assessed via auscultation, color Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and histologic examination. Echocardiographic analysis revealed compensatory eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio was 1.5:1. Histologic evidence of endothelialization of the anastomotic sites and vein graft arterialization was detectable at 30 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autologous jugular vein grafts were effectively used to create a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt by use of a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure. High patency, ready accessibility, low cost, and theoretical adaptative remodeling during patient growth make autologous jugular vein grafts a valuable alternative to synthetic materials.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To use computer-assisted kinematic analysis to describe the walk in healthy dogs and to adapt Fourier transformation for analysis of the data.

Design

Evaluation of normal walk in dogs, using kinematic and force plate analysis.

Sample Population

15 healthy large-breed dogs.

Procedure

Morphometric data were collected to describe the sample population. Temporal and distance variables were measured to describe the walk. Flexion and extension movements were described for the scapulohumeral, cubital, carpal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Fourier transformation was adapted to facilitate analysis of the joint angle waveforms.

Results

Unique and complex patterns of flexion and extension movements were observed for each joint studied. The walk had consistency of movement in the sample population in temporal and distance variables and joint movements. Variances attributable to intra- and interdog differences were similar and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean Fourier coefficients from which they were calculated for all 6 joints. The number of essential Fourier coefficients required to represent the joint angle waveforms was 3 for the coxofemoral joint, 5 each for the femorotibial, scapulohumeral, cubital, and carpal joints, and 6 for the tarsal joint.

Conclusions

Computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis proved to be a reliable and consistent technique for assessment of movement at the walk in dogs, and Fourier transformation was shown to be an effective tool for analysis of the kinematic data.

Clinical Relevance

The database derived from the normal sample population in this study can be used as a model of musculoskeletal function at the walk for future comparisons with disease and treatment.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:381-388)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

Noninvasive, computer-assisted, three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was used to describe lameness in a chronic model of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs.

Design

Hind limb lameness was evaluated prior to and at 1, 3, and 6 months after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

Animals

Seven clinically normal large dogs.

Procedure

Dynamic flexion and extension angles and angular velocities were calculated for the coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Distance and temporal variables were determined. Essential Fourier coefficients were used to develop mean flexion extension curves for all joints and to compare changes in movement that developed with CCLR over time.

Results

Each joint had a characteristic pattern of flexion and extension movement that changed with CCLR. The femorotibial joint angle was more flexed throughout stance and early swing phase of stride and failed to extend in late stance. Angular velocity of the femorotibial joint was damped throughout stance phase, with extension velocity almost negligible. The coxofemoral and tarsal joint angles, in contrast to the femorotibial joint angle, were extended more during stance phase. These changes were documented as differences noted in the essential Fourier coefficients. Stride length and frequency also varied significantly after CCLR.

Conclusions

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture affects movement of the coxofemoral and tarsal joints, as well as the femorotibial joint, in gait. A pattern of joint movement may be discerned in which the coxofemoral and tarsal joints compensate for the dysfunction of the femorotibial joint.

Clinical Relevance

Methods were developed that will improve objective evaluation of CCLR and its treatment in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:120-126)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We measured glomerular filtration rate (gfr) estimated by plasma disappearance of 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), creatinine, and urea nitrogen, and urine specific gravity in 13 cats with naturally acquired hyperthyroidism before and 30 days after treatment by bilateral thyroidectomy, and in a group of 11 control cats. Mean (±sd) serum T4 concentration decreased from a pretreatment value of 120.46 (± 39.21) nmol/L to a posttreatment value of 12.15 (± 6.26) nmol/L (P < 0.0001; reference range, 10 to 48 nmol/L). Treatment of hyperthyroidism resulted in a decrease in mean (± sd) glomerular filtration rate, from 2.51 (± 0.69) ml/kg of body weight/min to a posttreatment value of 1.40 (± 0.41) ml/kg/min (P < 0.0001). Mean serum creatinine concentration increased from 1.26 (± 0.34) mg/dl to 2.05 (± 0.60) mg/dl (P < 0.01). Mean serum urea nitrogen concentration increased from 26.62 (± 6.83) mg/dl to a mean postthyroidectomy concentration of 34.92 (± 8.95) mg/dl (P < 0.01). All changes were significant. Two cats developed overt renal azotemia after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Our results provide further evidence that treatment of hyperthyroidism can result in impaired renal function. In addition, our results suggest that, in some instances, thyrotoxicosis might mask underlying chronic renal insufficiency.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A noninvasive computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis was used to describe flexion and extension movements of 6 joints in Greyhounds at a trot. Distinct patterns of movements were described for each joint studied. The coxofemoral and carpal joints were characterized by a single peak of maximal extension. The femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had 2 peaks of maximal extension, with 1 peak preceding stance phase and a second peak within stance phase. A two-factor repeated-measures anova was used to determine the variance in measurement of joint angles in degrees that was attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs. The coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 6.6 (range, 1.7 to 12.9), and a mean variance attributable to differences between dogs of 5.1 (range, 0.9 to 9.2). The carpus had more variance, with a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 16.3 (range, 13.3 to 20.5), and that attributable to differences between dogs of 31.8 (range, 20.5 to 46.7). Kinematic gait analysis provided a reliable description of flexion and extension movements in Greyhounds with minimal variance attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research