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Summary

To determine whether body direction in a trailer affects the degree to which a horse is excited (and presumably stressed) during transport, heart rates were measured in 8 Thoroughbred geldings transported over a 32-km route of county roads while tethered facing forward or backward in a 4-horse stock trailer. Heart rates also were measured on the horses while they were tethered facing forward or backward in the same trailer while it was parked. Heart rates decreased during the first 10 minutes for both groups, and remained stable after the first 15 minutes. Heart rates were not significantly different between horses facing forward or backward during transport or while parked. Heart rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for horses during transport, compared with those of horses in a parked trailer whether facing forward or backward.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether a detergent can prevent most of the early effects of IV infusion with Escherichia coli endotoxin (< 100 ng/kg of body weight) in horses: marked pulmonary hypertension, acute leukopenia, and fever.

Animals

8 healthy adult horses (4 male, 4 female), 415 to 615 kg.

Design and Procedure

Control and detergent experiments were performed in each horse while it was awake but sedated. In control experiments, 10 to 100 ng of E coli endotoxin/kg was given. In detergent experiments, 100 mg of detergent/kg was given 1 hour before injecting endotoxin, similar to the control experiments.

Results

In control experiments, pulmonary arterial pressure increased transiently over 40 minutes by 33 ± 8 mm of Hg (mean ± SD; P < 0.001), then returned to baseline. Circulating leukocytes decreased to 47 ± 19% (P < 0.02) of baseline by 1 hour after endotoxin, then increased above baseline by 6 hours. Rectal temperature increased by 0.7 ± 0.4 C (P < 0.01). In detergent experiments, the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure was much less than that in the control experiments (8 ± 7 mm of Hg; P < 0.001). Circulating leukocytes did not decrease, and the increase in rectal temperature after endotoxin was blocked.

Conclusions

This attenuation of the response to endotoxin may occur because the normal steps in the response of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (ie, endocytosis of endotoxin and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators) are altered by the detergent. This low-technology, inexpensive, and safe treatment could be an important new clinical tool for veterinarians in combating endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1063–1066)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cortical bone screws were implanted into the proximal portion of the right and left radius and ulna of 6 newborn Quarter Horse foals as radiographic markers for measurement of growth. Distance between markers on a lateral radiographic view was measured. Radiographs were taken at 2-week intervals until the horses were 8 weeks old, at 4-week intervals until they were 48 weeks old, and at 12-week intervals until they were 72 weeks old.

The proximal radius and ulna grew at similar rates during the 72-week period of evaluation, and growth continued throughout 72 weeks. The proximal radius grew 3.5 cm, and the ulna grew 3.4 cm. Although the rates of growth were similar, growth from the ulnar physis contributed only to the length of the olecranon; growth was not transmitted to the ulnar diaphysis distal to the cubital joint. The proximal radius slid distally in relation to the ulna as growth occurred at the proximal radial physis.

These findings suggest that transfixing the ulna to the radius while growth is occurring at the proximal radial physis impedes the natural shifting process, and subluxation of the elbow can result. Severity of subluxation would be inversely related to the age of the horse at the time of transfixation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sevoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for thoracotomy in horses.

Animals—18 horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure—4 horses were used to develop surgical techniques and were euthanatized at the end of the procedure. The remaining 14 horses were selected, because they had an episode of bleeding from their lungs during strenuous exercise. General anesthesia was induced with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight, IV) followed by ketamine (2.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen delivered via a circle anesthetic breathing circuit. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at approximately 45 mm Hg. Neuromuscular blocking drugs (succinylcholine or atracurium) were administered to eliminate spontaneous breathing efforts and to facilitate surgery. Cardiovascular performance was monitored and supported as indicated.

Results—2 of the 14 horses not euthanatized died as a result of ventricular fibrillation. Mean (± SD) duration of anesthesia was 304.9 ± 64.1 minutes for horses that survived and 216.7 ± 85.5 minutes for horses that were euthanatized or died. Our subjective opinion was that sevoflurane afforded good control of anesthetic depth during induction, maintenance, and recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of sevoflurane together with neuromuscular blocking drugs provides stable and easily controllable anesthetic management of horses for elective thoracotomy and cardiac manipulation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1430–1437)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research