OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for development of postoperative diskospondylitis (POD) in dogs that underwent spinal decompression surgery for intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).
DESIGN Retrospective single cohort study.
ANIMALS 372 dogs that underwent spinal decompression surgery for IVDH between January 2007 and January 2011.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding signalment, type and anatomic site of IVDH, severity of neurologic signs, type of surgery, duration of anesthesia, esophageal temperature during surgery, and use of corticosteroid drugs were analyzed for associations with POD.
RESULTS POD developed in 8 of 372 (2.2%) dogs. Univariate analysis revealed that German Shepherd Dogs had 9.8 times the odds of POD, compared with the odds for other breeds. In addition, dogs > 8.8 years of age, weighing > 20 kg (44 lb), or having disk protrusions were at higher risk of developing POD than were other dogs. The only factor that retained a significant association with POD after controlling for other factors in multivariate analysis was body weight > 20 kg.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Factors identified in this study may be useful for prediction of POD, an apparently uncommon outcome, in dogs undergoing spinal decompression surgery for IVDH. Dogs at higher risk than others, particularly those weighing > 20 kg, should be monitored carefully in the immediate postoperative period, and signs of worsening neurologic condition after initial improvement should be promptly investigated.
Objective—To determine ultrasonographic features and reference values of the anatomy of the abdomen of common rats (Rattus norvegicus).
Animals—20 adult male and 20 adult female rats.
Procedures—A complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed with the rats sedated. The cadavers of 4 rats were used for anatomic comparisons. Two cadavers were dissected and 2 cadavers were frozen and then cross-sectioned by use of an electric bandsaw. Slices were cleaned with water and photographed on each side. Correlations between variables were determined.
Results—The ultrasonographic anatomy of the abdomen was determined, including measurements of the kidneys and adrenal glands and thickness of the walls of the stomach (saccus caecus, fundus, and pylorus), duodenum, and cecum. A significant positive correlation between kidney size and body weight was detected. The dorsoventral measurements of the left and right adrenal gland were significantly different, regardless of sex. Dorsoventral measurements of the right adrenal gland were significantly different between males and females.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ultrasonographic images and data provided an atlas of the ultrasonographic anatomy of common rats that may be useful to veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and researchers.
OBJECTIVE To determine survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 177 shelter cats with FPV infection.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats treated for FPV infection from 2011 through 2013 were reviewed to collect information pertaining to signalment; history; results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and blood gas analysis; and treatments (antimicrobials, antiparasitics, antivirals, antiemetics, analgesics, crystalloid or colloid solutions, and blood products). Survival time and outcome predictors were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier estimation, logistic regression, and mixed-model ANOVA.
RESULTS Median survival time after hospital admission was 3 days; 20.3% (36/177) of cats survived to discharge from the hospital. Risk of nonsurvival was greater in cats with (vs without) signs of lethargy, rectal temperature < 37.9°C (I00.2°F), or low body weight at hospital admission. Lower (vs higher) leukocyte count on days 3,4, and 7 of hospitalization, but not at admission, was associated with nonsurvival. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, antiparasitics, and maropitant but not interferon-ω were associated with survival, whereas glucose infusion was associated with nonsurvival.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that FPV infection carried a poor prognosis for shelter cats. Several variables measured at admission or during hospitalization were associated with outcome. Remarkably and contrary to the existing literature, leukopenia at admission had no association with outcome, possibly owing to early prevention of complications.