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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate long-term neurologic outcome in dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) that were treated nonsurgically with a cervical splint.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals±19 dogs with AAS and managed with a cervical splint.

Procedure—Medical records from 2 university hospitals were reviewed. Information pertaining to trauma, duration of clinical signs prior to admission, medical treatments prior to admission, results of neurologic and physical examinations at the time of admission, results of laboratory testing, results of diagnostic imaging, neurologic status at the time of discharge, duration of time the cervical splint was used for treatment, and neurologic status at the time of splint removal and at a final reexamination was extracted from the medical records. Long-term outcome was defined as neurologic status greater than or equal to 1 year after splint removal. Factors associated with a good or poor long-term outcome were determined.

Results—A good final outcome was reported in 10 of 16 dogs. Median duration of clinical signs prior to referral was 30 days; dogs that were affected ≤ 30 days were significantly more likely to have a good long-term outcome, compared with dogs affected > 30 days. The neurologic grade at admission, radiographic appearance of the dens, age at onset of clinical signs, and history were not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonsurgical management of AAS by use of a cervical splint is a viable treatment modality for young dogs with a first episode of acute-onset clinical signs, regardless of the severity of neurologic deficits at admission. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:257–262)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To identify correlations between ultrasonographic findings and specific hepatic diseases in cats.


Retrospective study.

Sample Population

Medical records of 72 cats with a histopathologic diagnosis of hepatic disease and diagnostic-quality abdominal ultrasonograms between 1985 and 1997.


Abdominal ultrasonographic findings in 72 cats with histologically confirmed hepatic disease (hepatic lipidosis excluded) were reviewed. Rather than attempt to combine individual ultrasonographic findings with specific hepatic diseases, 2 classification trees were created as models to correlate certain groups of abnormalities with specific hepatic diseases or with malignant and benign lesions of the liver. Sensitivity and specificity of classification trees were calculated.


Use of a classification tree resulted in correct classification of malignant versus benign hepatic lesions in 88.9% of cats that had hepatic disease (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 86.1 %). Use of a classification tree to distinguish individual types of hepatic diseases resulted in mostly accurate classification of hepatic lymphosarcoma (sensitivity, 70.5%; specificity, 98.2%), cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis syndrome (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 90%), and benign lesions of the liver (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 86.4%). Criteria that helped most in differentiating among various hepatic diseases were abnormalities within other organs (spleen, lymph nodes) and appearance of the hepatic portal system. A correlation was not found between focal or multifocal appearance of hepatic lesions and specific hepatic diseases.

Clinical Implications

Use of classification trees to distinguish among specific hepatic diseases or between malignant and benign hepatic lesions provides potentially useful algorithms for ultrasonographic evaluation of cats with hepatic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:94-98)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides a noninvasive assessment of hepatobiliary structure and function, and has been used extensively in people. Hepatocellular measurements determined in the cats of this study include cardiac washout (≤ 2 minutes) and time of maximal hepatic activity (≤ 5 minutes) and hepatic washout (≤ 30 minutes). The gallbladder response to synthetic cholecystokinin was determined to be ≤ 3 minutes. Additional measurements also were identified. Potential use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in feline medicine is discussed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research