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  • Author or Editor: B. W. Rohrbach x
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SUMMARY

End-tidal carbon dioxide tension (Pet CO2 ) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 ) were determined and compared in isoflurane-anesthetized spontaneously breathing equine neonates. End-tidal carbon dioxide and PaCO2 values increased with respect to time. Difference between values of Pet CO2 and PaCO2 increased over time. End-tidal carbon dioxide tension was useful to predict changes in and was more closely correlated with PaCO2 early in the anesthetic period (T ≤ 60 minutes). The dead space volume to tidal volume (Vd/Vt) ratio increased with respect to time, indicating increase in physiologic dead space in isoflurane-anesthetized foals. The data indicate that the increased difference between widening of the Pet CO2 and PaCO2 values over time may have been attributable to hypoventilation and decreased pulmonary capillary perfusion of alveoli.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

Sequential serologic analysis for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was done on 240 commingled feeder swine at 1 and 21 days after purchase and at slaughter. At the beginning of the experiment, mean weight of the pigs was 18.6 kg, and the pigs were maintained to a mean slaughter weight of 109.95 kg. A fourfold increase in antibody titer against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated in 28 (12%) pigs. Mean adjusted rate of gain for infected pigs was 0.74 ± 0.10kg/d and 0.77 ± 0.09kg/d for uninfected pigs. Differences in feed efficiency were not detected between infected and uninfected pigs. Our findings suggested that 5.64 additional days are required for pigs with subclinical infection to reach market weight of 113.6 kg, compared with that for uninfected herdmates. A vaccination program to prevent subclinical infection may not be cost effective.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sedative, antinociceptive, and physiologic effects of acepromazine and butorphanol during tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthesia in llamas.

Animals—5 young adult llamas.

Procedures—Llamas received each of 5 treatments IM (1-week intervals): A (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg), B1 (butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), AB (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, and butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), B2 (butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg), or C (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Sedation was evaluated during a 30-minute period prior to anesthesia with TZ (2 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia and recovery characteristics and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at intervals. Antinociception was assessed via a toe-clamp technique.

Results—Sedation was not evident following any treatment. Times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ among treatments. Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer for treatment AB than for treatment C. Duration of antinociception was significantly longer for treatments A and AB, compared with treatment C, and longer for treatment AB, compared with treatment B2. Treatment B1 resulted in a significant decrease in respiratory rate, compared with treatment C. Compared with treatment C, diastolic and mean blood pressures were lower after treatment A. Heart rate was increased with treatment A, compared with treatment B1 or treatment C. Although severe hypoxemia developed in llamas anesthetized with TZ alone and with each treatment-TZ combination, hemoglobin saturation remained high and the hypoxemia was not considered clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sedation or changes in heart and respiratory rates were not detected with any treatment before administration of TZ. Acepromazine alone and acepromazine with butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) prolonged the duration of antinociception in TZ-treated llamas.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus.

Animals—Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMACT) was measured.

Results—Mean ± SD ISOMAC and ISOMACT values were 2.33 ± 0.13% and 2.12 ± 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 ± 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMACT determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMACT and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine proportions of cats in which feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was diagnosed on an annual, monthly, and regional basis and identify unique characteristics of cats with FIP.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of all feline accessions to veterinary medical teaching hospitals (VMTH) recorded in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between January 1986 and December 1995 and of all feline accessions for necropsy or histologic examination at 4 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

Procedure—Proportions of total and new feline accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded were calculated. To identify characteristics of cats with FIP, cats with FIP were compared with the next cat examined at the same institution (control cats).

Results—Approximately 1 of every 200 new feline and 1 of every 300 total feline accessions at VMTH in North America and approximately 1 of every 100 accessions at the diagnostic laboratories represented cats with FIP. Cats with FIP were significantly more likely to be young, purebred, and sexually intact males and significantly less likely to be spayed females and discharged alive than were control cats. The proportion of new accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded did not vary significantly among years, months, or regions of the country.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that FIP continues to be a clinically important disease in North America and that sexually intact male cats may be at increased risk, and spayed females at reduced risk, for FIP. The high prevalence of FIP and lack of effective treatment emphasizes the importance of preventive programs, especially in catteries. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1111–1115)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A double-blind study was conducted to compare gastri ulcer healing time in nontreated dogs with that in dogs treated with either cimetidine or omeprazole. Single ulcers were created in the gastric antrum by use of a suction biopsy capsule. Each dog was given 25 mg of aspirin/kg of body weight orally for 20 days after ulcer induction. Five control dogs were given aspirin only (no anti-ulcer medication) during the 20-day study. Six dogs were given cimetidine at dosage of 10 mg/kg orally every 8 hours, and 6 dogs were given omeprazole orally at dosage of 2 μmol/kg (0.7 mg/kg) once daily. All dogs were examined endoscopically on days 5, 10, 15, and 20 and were given a score for the size of the mechanically created ulcer and a score for the degree of aspirin-induced gastritis. All dogs were euthanatized on day 21, and gastric lesions were examined histologically. Significant differences were not evident in ulcer healing scores or degree of aspirin-induced gastritis among treated and nontreated dogs on days 5, 10, 15, and 20. However, aspirin-induced gastritis was less severe in dogs of the omeprazole group than in dogs of the cimetidine or control group on each day observations were made. The effect of omeprazole given once daily was comparable with that of cimetidine given every 8 hours in lessening aspirin-induced gastritis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The antebrachiocarpal and tarsocrural joints of 10 adult horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Groups were formulated and were treated as follows: group 1, control (arthrocentesis only); group 2, buffered lactated Ringer solution; group 3, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso; w/v) in lactated Ringer solution; and group 4, 30% dmso (w/v) in lactated Ringer solution. Joints were lavaged once with the respective solution. Prior to lavage and on days 1, 4, and 8 after lavage, all horses were evaluated for lameness and joint effusion; synovial fluid total and differential wbc counts, synovial fluid total protein concentration, and mucin clot quality were determined. Horses were euthanatized on day 8, and joints were evaluated grossly, histologically, and histochemically.

Significant difference was not observed in effect of lactated Ringer solution, 10% dmso, and 30% dmso on any measured variable. At 24 hours after treatment, significant (P < 0.05) difference in synovial fluid wbc numbers and total protein concentration was detected between control and treated joints. Eighty percent of lavaged joints had effusion 24 hours after treatment, compared with 30% of control joints.

Gross, histopathologic, or histochemical differences were not detected between treated and control joints. Results of the study indicate that buffered lactated Ringer, 10% dmso, and 30% dmso solutions induce similar inflammatory changes in articular structures and significantly greater inflammatory reaction than does arthrocentesis alone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research