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Abstract

Objective

To investigate any potential structural differences in hepatogastric ligaments between clinically normal dogs and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv).

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

Hepatogastric ligaments were examined in 13 large-breed control dogs and in 13 large-breed dogs referred for surgical treatment of gdv.

Procedure

Measurements and biopsies of hepatogastric ligaments were performed at the time of surgery, circumcostal gastropexy, for correction of gdv. Serial sections from each ligament were stained with H&E, Masson's trichrome, and elastin stains to assess morphology, including smooth muscle, collagen, and elastic fiber contents.

Results

There were no differences observed by light microscopy in incidence or degree of histopathologic alterations between the 2 groups of dogs. The lengths of hepatogastric ligaments in gdv-affected dogs, however, were significantly longer than those of control dogs (gdv-affected dogs, 7.0 [5.0 to 9.5] cm median [range]; control dogs, 5.0 [3.0 to 7.5] cm median [range]; P = 0.01).

Conclusions

Causality can not be inferred from this study. It is not known whether the ligaments were lengthened as a result of gdv or whether the lengthened ligaments predisposed dogs to gdv.

Clinical Relevance

This finding may reflect increased laxity of the supporting hepatogastric ligament in the right quadrant of the abdomen. An elongated ligament may permit increased stomach mobility and predispose dogs to partial or complete gastric volvulus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of intra-articularly administered 6α-methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) in exercised horses with carpal osteochondral fragmentation.

Animals

18 horses: 3 groups of 6 each.

Procedure

An osteochondral (chip) fragment was created in 1 randomly chosen middle carpal joint of each horse. Polyionic fluid (PF) was injected into both middle carpal joints of horses in the control group. In horses of the MPA-control group, MPA was injected into the middle carpal joint without an osteochondral fragment; a similar volume of PF was injected into the contralateral middle carpal joint. In the MPA-treated group of horses, 100 mg of MPA was injected into the middle carpal joint containing the osteochondral fragment; a similar volume of PF was injected into the contralateral joint. Injections were administered on postsurgical days 14 and 28, and horses were exercised on a high-speed treadmill for 8 weeks, starting on postsurgical day 15.

Results

Clinical improvement in degree of lameness was not associated with MPA administration. Joints that contained an osteochondral fragment and were treated with MPA had lower prostaglandin E2 concentration in synovial fluid, and lower scores for intimal hyperplasia and vascularity in synovial membrane, compared with PF-treated joints. However, articular cartilage erosion and morphologic lesions suggested possible deleterious effect of intra-articular MPA administration.

Conclusions

Some beneficial effects of MPA administration on synovial fluid and synovial membrane were identified; however, the deleterious findings contrast with those associated with triamcinolone acetonide used in a similar model, but agree with other results of MPA administration in normal and abnormal joints. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1619-1628)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Superficial digital flexor tendinitis was induced in each forelimb of 8 horses by injecting 4,000 U of collagenase into the midmetacarpal region of the tendon. In each horse, each tendon was treated 24 and 96 hours after the collagenase injection with sc injections of sodium hyaluronate (treated limbs) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl solution (control limbs). Exercise was restricted for the first 3 weeks of the study, and a controlled exercise program was instituted for the remainder of the study. Horses were evaluated clinically for lameness, tendon swelling, and midmetacarpal limb circumference. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed regularly (11 examinations/horse) throughout the study, and all horses were euthanatized 12 weeks after collagenase injections. Tendons from 4 horses were harvested for biomechanical testing, and samples were obtained from tendons from the remaining 4 horses for biochemical analysis of collagen. Samples were obtained from all tendons for microscopic evaluation. Significant differences between treated and control tendons were not noticed in any of the variables examined in live horses, although trends toward less lameness in treated limbs and toward better healing on ultrasonographic examination in control limbs were recorded. Significant differences were not noticed in biomechanical or biochemical evaluations, and the only significant (P < 0.05) microscopic finding was more severe inflammation in tendons from treated limbs. This study did not reveal significant benefits of treatment with sodium hyaluronate outside a synovial sheath on tendon repair in collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Uterine tissue specimens from 90 llamas with history of infertility were examined and graded microscopically; 83 specimens were obtained by endometrial biopsy and 7 specimens were obtained at necropsy. Fifteen llamas (16.7%) had a normal uterus, which was graded 1A. Twenty-three llamas (25.6%) had minor uterine abnormalities that were graded lB. Forty-five llamas (50.0%) had appreciable endometritis that was graded 2A. Three llamas (3.3%) had endometritis with gland fibrosis that was graded 2B. Two llamas (2.2%) had notable uterine gland fibrosis that was graded 3A. Two llamas (2.2%) had uterine neoplasia that was graded 3B. Thirty-six llamas had follow-up evaluation; 22 became pregnant, most after some form of treatment. Uterine biopsy in llamas was readily performed without complications and was valuable in identifying a wide range of uterine diseases, most of which were amenable to treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of arthroscopic surgery, osteochondral fragmentation, and treatment with IV administered hyaluronate on histologic, histochemical, and biochemical measurements within the carpal joints of horses.

Animals

12 clinically normal horses, 2 to 7 years of age.

Procedure

Horses had an osteochondral fragment created at the distal aspect of the radiocarpal bone of 1 randomly chosen middle carpal joint to simulate osteochondral fragmentation. Horses were treated with 40 mg of hyaluronate or saline solution (placebo) intravenously once a week for 3 consecutive weeks (days 13, 20, and 27 after surgery). Treadmill exercise proceeded 5 days per week beginning 15 days, and ending 72 days, after surgery. Clinical evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Synovial fluid samples were obtained aseptically from both middle carpal joints on days 0, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 72 after surgery, and total protein, inflammatory cell, hyaluronate, glycosaminoglycan, and prostaglandin E2 concentrations were measured in each sample. All horses were euthanatized on day 72. Synovial membrane and articular cartilage were obtained for histologic evaluation. Articular cartilage samples were also obtained aseptically for determining glycosaminoglycan content and chondrocyte synthetic rate for glycosaminoglycans.

Results

Horses treated with hyaluronate intravenously had lower lameness scores (were less lame), significantly better synovial membrane histologic scores, and significantly lower concentrations of total protein and prostaglandin E2 within synovial fluid 72 days after surgery, compared with placebo-treated horses. Treatment with intravenously administered hyaluronate had no significant effects on glycosaminoglycan content, synthetic rate or morphologic scoring in articular cartilage, or other synovial fluid measurements.

Conclusion

Intravenously administered hyaluronate appears to alleviate signs of lameness by interacting with synoviocytes, and by decreasing production and release of inflammatory mediators. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1132–1140)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 36 dogs with synovial sarcoma confirmed by microscopic examination of h&e-stained sections of tissue were selected for retrospective analysis from dogs admitted between 1986 and 1991 to participating institutions of the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Metastasis was evident at the time of diagnosis in 8 (22%) dogs, and 15 (41%) dogs ultimately developed metastatic tumors. Median survival time for all dogs, as determined by lije-table analysis, was 17 months. For dogs that were subsequently treated and became tumor free, the median disease-free interval was 30 months. Nine dogs had previously had localized excision attempted, but all had recurrence of the tumor locally (median, 4.5 months). Of 29 dogs that underwent amputation, including the 9 with localized recurrence, 2 had tumor recurrence on the amputation stump. Most dogs had survival time and disease-free interval of > 36 months after amputation. Four dogs that had received chemotherapy for tumors of advanced clinical stages did not respond to treatment. One dog that had received locally applied radiotherapy after localized excision did not have evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years after radiotherapy. Clinical stage, histologic grade, and a positive result for tests that used cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining significantly (P < 0.05) influenced survival time and disease-free interval. Analysis of data for the study reported here suggested that histologic criteria can be an excellent predictor of dogs that are likely to have tumor recurrence after amputation and that would most likely benefit from aggressive treatment with adjuvants.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Bilateral osteochondral defects (10 mm2 × 3 mm deep) were created on the distal articular surface of the radial carpal bone of ten, 2- to 3-year-old horses. One defect of each horse was repaired, using a sternal cartilage autograft (treated), and the other was left untreated (control). The horses were exercised on a high-speed treadmill at incrementally increased speed and duration over the course of 12 months. Horses were evaluated arthroscopically at 6 to 7 weeks, and clinical examinations were conducted weekly at exercise. Twelve months after surgery, carpuses of each horse were radiographed and clinically examined prior to euthanasia. A gross pathologic evaluation of each joint was conducted, and samples were collected for histologic, histochemical, histomorphometric, and biochemical evaluation. Radio-graphically, the grafted joints had more extensive evidence of arthropathy, and clinically, 8 of the 10 horses were more lame in the grafted limb. On the basis of histomorphometry, the repair tissue of the grafted defects contained a greater median percentage of hyaline cartilage (45%) than that of control defects (4.5%), and the control defects contained a greater percentage of fibrocartilage (82%) than did grafted defects (28.5%). A greater median percentage of repair tissue stained with safranin-O in the grafted defects (24.5%) than in the control defects (3.5%). On gross pathologic and histologic evaluation, repair tissue of the control defects had better continuity and was more firmly attached to the subchondral bone than was repair tissue of the grafted defects. Repair tissue of the grafted defects had extensive fissure and flap formation. Histologically, subchondral bone reactivity and fibroplasia was extensive in grafted joints. Repair tissue of grafted defects had a greater percentage of type II collagen (mean ± SEM, 83.5 ± 2.95%) than did controls (mean, 79.4 ± 3.87%) that was not statistically significant. Hexosamine content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in repair tissue of the grafted defect (mean, 28.9 ± 3.00 mg/g of dry weight) vs control (mean, 20.6 ± 1.85 mg/g of dry weight). On the basis of this experimental model, sternal cartilage autografts cannot be recommended at this time for repair of osteochondral defects in athletic horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research