OBJECTIVE To determine manubrium heart scores (MHSs) from measurements of cardiac short-axis length (cSAL) and long-axis length (cLAL) relative to the corresponding manubrium length (ML) on thoracic radiographic views of dogs and assess correlation of MHSs with vertebral heart scores (VHSs).
ANIMALS 120 clinically normal large-breed dogs (LBDs) and small-breed dogs (SBDs).
PROCEDURES On right lateral views (RLVs) and ventrodorsal views (VDVs) for each dog, cSAL and cLAL were measured and expressed as a ratio; the cSAL:ML ratio (short-MHS), cLAL:ML ratio (long-MHS), and cSAL-and-cLAL:ML ratio (overall-MHS) were also calculated. The VHS was determined from the RLV. Correlation of VHS with MHS was assessed.
RESULTS On RLVs and VDVs, mean cSAL:cLAL ratios were 0.77 (SD, 0.05) and 0.72 (SD, 0.05), respectively, in 60 LBDs and 0.81 (SD, 0.06) and 0.78 (SD, 0.06), respectively, in 60 SBDs. In LBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.1 (SD, 0.22), 2.7 (SD, 0.24), and 4.8 (SD, 0.5), respectively, on RLVs and 2.3 (SD, 0.26), 3.2 (SD, 0.34), and 5.4 (SD, 0.6), respectively, on VDVs. In SBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.4 (SD, 0.39), 2.9 (SD, 0.50), and 5.3 (SD, 0.83), respectively, on RLVs and 2.5 (SD, 0.44), 3.2 (SD, 0.51), and 5.8 (SD, 0.92), respectively, on VDVs. Mean VHSs were 10.73 (SD, 0.52) and 10.27 (SD, 0.81) in LBDs and SBDs, respectively. A significant correlation was identified between VHS and each MHS in LBDs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In the dogs evaluated, radiographic cardiac dimensions and MHSs were correlated. Validity of the MHS for cardiac dimension assessment in other healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease warrants investigation.
To evaluate the usefulness of manubrium heart scores (MHSs) in distinguishing between dogs with and without cardiac disease.
184 client-owned dogs with (n = 64) and without (120) cardiac disease.
Medical records, including thoracic radiographic images, of dogs that either had echocardiographically confirmed moderate to severe cardiac disease with cardiomegaly (case dogs) or were healthy and without evidence of cardiac disease (control dogs) were retrospectively reviewed. From right lateral thoracic radiographic images, the lengths of the cardiac short and long axes and the manubrium were measured and cardiac sphericity indices (CSIs), MHSs, and vertebral heart scores were determined. Dogs were grouped on the basis of whether they did or did not have cardiac disease (case dogs vs control dogs), breed size (large-breed dogs vs small-breed dogs), and whether cardiac disease affected the right side of the heart (right-sided cardiac disease) or the left side of heart (left-sided cardiac disease). Results were compared across groups.
The mean CSI was greatest in case dogs with right-sided cardiac disease, compared with other groups. In dogs of the present study, a combination of high short-, long-, and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of left-sided cardiac disease, whereas a high short-MHS without high long- and overall-MHSs was more suggestive of right-sided cardiac disease.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that MHSs could be useful, objective values to help assess dogs for potential heart disease, and we recommend that MHSs be added to the diagnostic tools used by veterinarians when screening for heart disease in dogs.
To develop quantitative measures that, when combined with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) score, would potentially enhance the accuracy of the scoring process.
153 client-owned purebred German Shepherd Dogs with normal and near normal (71 dogs) and dysplastic coxofemoral joint (82 dogs).
Center edge (CE) angle, Norberg angle (NA), indexes of dorsal acetabular femoral head (AFH) coverage width and area, acetabular index angle, and inclination angle were determined. We also investigated the correlation between selected variables. Coxofemoral joints were classified into normal, near normal, and mildly, moderately, and severely dysplastic joints based on the morphometric criteria previously established by the conventional FCI scoring. Variables were compared among the 5 groups using ANOVA. Linear relationships were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients.
All radiographic measurements differed significantly (P < .0001) among the 5 assigned groups (normal, near normal, mildly dysplastic, moderately dysplastic, and severely dysplastic hip joints). NA was the only measure that differed significantly (P ≤ .03) between the 5 assigned groups. Positive correlations were identified between Norberg and CE angles (rs = 0.93), between width and area indexes of dorsal AFH coverage (rs = 0.92), and between the measurement techniques utilized to assess lateral versus dorsal AFH coverage (rs ≥ 0.65).
Evaluation of lateral and dorsal AFH coverage may help to refine the scoring system used to select German Shepherd Dogs for breeding. German Shepherd Dogs with NA < 103°, CE angle < 20.8°, dorsal AFH coverage width index ≤ 49%, and/or dorsal AFH coverage area index ≤ 51% should be considered to have mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia and are therefore not good candidates for breeding. Borderline values between near normal and mildly dysplastic joints should be reevaluated.
Objective—To evaluate skeletal characteristics of pelvic limbs with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency in Labrador Retrievers.
Animals—30 adult purebred Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Pelvic limbs (n = 28) of 14 dogs without CCL deficiency were classified as control limbs, whereas the limbs of 16 dogs with CCL deficiency were considered affected by (18 limbs) or predisposed to (10 contralateral limbs of dogs with 1 affected limb) CCL deficiency. Skeletal characteristics were evaluated via physical examination, radiography, and computed tomography. Radiographic and computed tomographic variables were compared among limb groups by use of a mixed-model ANOVA.
Results—The tibial plateau slope was steeper in CCL-deficient limbs but not in predisposed limbs, compared with the slope in control limbs. The angle between diaphyseal and proximal tibial axes was increased in both CCL-deficient and predisposed limbs. The relative width of the proximal portion of the tibia and the inclination of the patellar ligament did not differ among limb groups. The overall and distal femoral anteversion angles were greater in CCL-deficient and predisposed limbs, whereas the femoral condyle trochanteric angle was decreased in those limb groups, compared with findings in control limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cranial angulation of the proximal portion of the tibia, excessive steepness of the tibial plateau, and distal femoral torsion appeared more likely to be associated with CCL deficiency than femoral angulation, tibial torsion, intercondylar notch stenosis, and increased inclination of the patellar ligament.
Objective—To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs.
Animals—14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT. Mass, COM, and moment of inertia were determined on the basis of tissue densities in the thigh, crus, and foot segments. Regression models were developed to determine predictive equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements.
Results—The thigh and crus of CCL-deficient limbs weighed less than in contralateral segments. Thighs weighed less in CCL-deficient than in normal limbs. The thigh moment of inertia was less in CCL-deficient than in contralateral limbs. The crural COM was located more distally in normal limbs, compared with other limbs. Predictive equations to estimate BSP varied by parameter, body segment, and limb status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BSPs of the thigh and crus varied with segment and status of the hind limb in Labrador Retrievers with or without CCL disease. Equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements were proposed, providing a basis for nonterminal studies of inverse dynamics of the hind limbs in Labrador Retrievers. This approach may offer new strategies to investigate the pathogenesis of nontraumatic joint diseases.