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Compare erythropoiesis-related factors between different stages of canine chronic kidney disease (CKD).


8 healthy adult dogs (controls), and 24 dogs with CKD, equally divided into 3 groups based on International Renal Interest Society-CKD Guidelines (stage 2, 3, and 4) were recruited between December 2012 and December 2014.


The following were assessed in all dogs and then compared between groups: bone marrow cytology, CBC, reticulocyte count, urinalysis, serum biochemistry, blood pressure, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythropoietin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interferon-γ.


Erythropoiesis inducing and suppressing factors and the results of the bone marrow cytology of dogs in stage 2 CKD did not differ from the control group. The presence of reticulocytosis in CKD stage 2 suggests that blood loss or erythrocyte destruction might be contributing to developing anemia. Anemia in dogs with progressive CKD was associated with increasing PTH and TNFα and with elevation of the ratio of myeloid to erythroid precursor cells caused by hypoplasia of the erythroid series. The latter was represented mainly by a decrease in the population of polychromatophilic rubricytes and metarubricytes.


Increased PTH and TNFα seem to contribute to the reduced percentage of polychromatophilic rubricytes and erythroid population, thereby aggravating the anemia of dogs with advanced CKD. Gastrointestinal blood loss contributes to anemia in all canine CKD stages.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To establish reference intervals for cytologic and biochemical variables in peritoneal fluid, whole blood, and plasma in calves with congenital umbilical hernias (CUHs) before and after herniorrhaphy and to assess whether those variables in calves with CUHs were altered, compared with findings in clinically normal calves.

Animals—20 Holstein calves with or without a CUH.

Procedures—10 calves with CUHs underwent herniorrhaphy. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples from all 20 calves were collected for cytologic and biochemical analyses on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15. Data from the 2 groups were compared.

Results—Reference intervals for the variables of interest were established for each group. Before surgery, calves with CUHs had significantly greater plasma total protein concentration and creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and peritoneal fluid specific gravity values, compared with values for calves without CUHs. At various time points after surgery, peritoneal fluid total protein concentration; fibrinogen concentration; nucleated cell, polymorphonuclear cell, and lymphocyte counts; specific gravity; and lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and CK activities in calves with CUHs were significantly different from values in calves without CUHs. Some plasma and blood variables (eg, total protein concentration, neutrophil count, and CK activity) were significantly different between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of certain cytologic and biochemical variables in peritoneal fluid, blood, and plasma were different between calves with and without CUHs. Thus, determination of reference intervals for these variables is important for interpreting diagnostic test results in calves with CUHs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research