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  • Author or Editor: Audrey Ruple x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of prednisone omission from a multidrug chemotherapy protocol on outcome in dogs with peripheral nodal lymphomas.

DESIGN Single-center, nonblinded, parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial.

ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of peripheral nodal lymphoma and an expected survival time of > 4 weeks with treatment.

PROCEDURES Treatment consisted of a combination of L-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (L-CHOP) or an identical protocol except for the omission of prednisone (L-CHO). The primary outcome of interest was progression-free survival time. Veterinary caregivers and assessors of outcome were not blinded to treatment assignment. Treatment assignment was concealed from the owners of study dogs prior to enrollment, but was revealed after written informed consent was provided.

RESULTS The trial was terminated early because of slow enrollment. The 40 dogs successfully enrolled in the study were randomly assigned to the L-CHOP (n = 18) or L-CHO (22) group; results for all 40 dogs were analyzed with respect to the primary outcome. Median progression-free survival time was 142.5 days for dogs receiving L-CHO and 292 days for dogs receiving L-CHOP (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 3.75). Serious adverse events were more common among dogs receiving L-CHO. However, this difference was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exclusion of prednisone from the L-CHOP protocol did not appear to result in improved progression-free survival time for dogs with peripheral nodal lymphomas. However, the present trial was likely underpowered to detect a clinically meaningful difference in progression-free survival time between groups.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.

ANIMALS

47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.

RESULTS

Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess for any association between a history of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and subsequent development of proximal tibial osteosarcoma in dogs.

DESIGN Matched case-control study.

ANIMALS 34 client-owned dogs in which proximal tibial osteosarcoma was diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2012 (cases) and 79 dogs without osteosarcoma, matched 3:1 to cases (when possible) by age, breed, and initial examination date (controls).

PROCEDURES Information on each case and control was collected from the medical records and other sources regarding date of birth, sex and neuter status, body weight, breed, and whether TPLO had been performed ≥ 1 year ago. A multivariable conditional logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate associations of body weight and history of TPLO with the outcome of proximal tibial osteosarcoma in dogs.

RESULTS After adjusting for body weight in the multivariable model, dogs with a history of TPLO were 40 times as likely to develop proximal tibial osteosarcoma as were dogs with no history of TPLO. In addition, each 1-kg (2.2-lb) increase in body weight was associated with an 11% increase in the odds of proximal tibial osteosarcoma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dogs with a history of TPLO were at increased risk of developing osteosarcoma of the proximal region of the tibia relative to dogs with no such history. Therefore, it is important for proximal tibial osteosarcoma to be included among the differential diagnoses for new or worsening hind limb lameness in dogs that underwent TPLO ≥ 1 year previously.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression in archived primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) specimens of dogs and determine whether that expression was associated with progression-free survival time (PFST).

SAMPLE Archived tumoral lymph node specimens from 42 dogs with DLBCL and lymph node specimens from 10 healthy dogs (controls).

PROCEDURES Archived tumoral and control lymph node specimens underwent multiplex qPCR analysis with probes and primers against canine PD-L1 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (housekeeping gene) to determine PD-L1 mRNA expression. The 2−ΔΔCt method was used to calculate the fold change in PD-L1 expression in DLBCL specimens relative to that in control lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate the association of various tumoral and clinical factors with PFST.

RESULTS The fold change in PD-L1 mRNA expression in DLBCL specimens relative to control specimens ranged from 0.21 to 7.44. Twenty-one of 42 (50%) DLBCL specimens had a PD-L1-fold change > 1, which suggested PD-L1 was overexpressed in those specimens. Median PFST was 249 days for dogs with DLBCL. The PFST was not associated with PD-L1 mRNA expression but was associated with thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 5.15).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that tumoral PD-L1 mRNA expression varied among dogs with DLBCL and that PD-L1 MRNA was overexpressed in half the study population. Therefore, anti–PD-L1 therapies may be clinically beneficial for some dogs with DLBCL.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The researchers and clinicians within the Dog Aging Project (DAP), a longitudinal cohort study of aging in companion dogs, created and validated a novel survey instrument titled the End of Life Survey (EOLS) to gather owner-reported mortality data about companion dogs.

SAMPLE

Bereaved dog owners who participated in the refinement, face validity assessment, or reliability assessment of the EOLS (n = 42) and/or completed the entire survey between January 20 and March 24, 2021 (646).

PROCEDURES

The EOLS was created and modified by veterinary health professionals and human gerontology experts using published literature, clinical veterinary experience, previously created DAP surveys, and feedback from a pilot study conducted with bereaved dog owners. The EOLS was subjected to qualitative validation methods and post hoc free-text analysis to evaluate its ability to thoroughly capture scientifically relevant aspects of companion dogs’ deaths.

RESULTS

The EOLS was well received with excellent face validity as assessed by dog owners and experts. The EOLS had fair to substantial reliability for the 3 validation themes—cause of death (κ = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.95), perimortem quality of life (κ = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.73), and reason for euthanasia (κ = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.52)—and had no need for any substantial content alterations based on free-text analysis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The EOLS has proven to be a well-accepted, comprehensive, and valid instrument for capturing owner-reported companion dog mortality data and has the potential to enhance veterinarians’ ability to care for the aging dog population by illuminating their understanding of companion dogs’ end-of-life experiences.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The Dog Aging Project End of Life Survey was used to evaluate factors associated with manner of death (euthanasia vs unassisted death), including cause of death (CoD), reason for euthanasia (RFE) if performed, medical symptoms, old age characteristics, and perimortem quality of life (QoL).

SAMPLE

Responses collected between the End of Life Survey launch (January 20, 2021) through December 31, 2021, from 2,570 participants whose dogs died.

METHODS

Response frequencies were described. Associations between manner of death and medical symptoms or old age characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression. Factors associated with RFE were evaluated using multinomial regression. The effects of CoD, age at death, and QoL on the frequency of euthanasia as the manner of death were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

2,195 (85.4%) dogs were euthanized, and 375 (14.6%) experienced unassisted death. The most frequent owner-reported CoD was illness/disease (n = 1,495 [58.1%]). The most frequently reported RFE was pain/suffering (n = 1,080 [49.2% of those euthanized]). As age increased, RFE was more likely to be “poor QoL” than any other response. In a multivariate regression including CoD, chronologic age, and QoL, euthanasia as the manner of death was not significantly associated with age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Euthanasia was a common manner of death for dogs in the US. Compared with unassisted death, euthanasia was associated with CoD illness/disease, lower QoL scores, and the presence and number of medical symptoms and old age characteristics. Understanding factors associated with manner of death is important to veterinarians who care for dogs at the end of life.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the risk of developing an overweight or obese (O/O) body condition score (BCS) in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, the impact of age at gonadectomy on O/O outcomes among sterilized dogs.

ANIMALS

Dogs were patients of Banfield Pet Hospital in the US from 2013 to 2019. After exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample consisted of 155,199 dogs.

PROCEDURES

In this retrospective cohort study, Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between O/O and gonadectomy status, sex, age at gonadectomy, and breed size. Models were used to estimate the risk of becoming O/O in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, to estimate risk of O/O BCS according to age at surgery among gonadectomized dogs.

RESULTS

Gonadectomy increased O/O risk for most dogs compared to intact dogs. Unlike most prior findings, O/O hazard ratios among gonadectomized versus intact dogs were larger for males than females. O/O risk varied according to breed size but not linearly. Sterilizing at 1 year old tended to yield a lower O/O risk compared to doing so later. Comparative O/O risk among dogs gonadectomized at 6 months versus 1 year varied by breed size. Overall patterns for obesity related to size were similar to patterns in the O/O analysis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinarians are uniquely positioned to help prevent O/O in their patients. Results extend understanding of risk factors for O/O development in dogs. In combination with information about other benefits and risks associated with gonadectomy, these data can help tailor recommendations regarding gonadectomy in individual dogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association