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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a single measurement of cortisol concentration can be used to monitor dogs receiving trilostane for hyperadrenocorticism.

Design—Controlled drug efficacy trial.

Animals—103 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Results of ACTH stimulation tests before and during trilostane treatment were evaluated. Each cortisol concentration after ACTH stimulation was classified as indicative of excessive, acceptable, or inadequate control of adrenal gland function, as outlined by the trilostane manufacturer. Baseline cortisol concentrations before and during trilostane treatment were evaluated; target variables were defined, and sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined.

Results—Results of 103 and 342 ACTH stimulation tests before and during treatment were evaluated. In this population, baseline cortisol concentrations ≥ 1.3 μg/dL accurately excluded excessive suppression (defined by cortisol concentration after ACTH stimulation < 1.5 μg/dL) in 254 of 259 (98%) dogs. In addition, baseline cortisol concentrations ≤ 2.9 μg/dL correctly excluded inadequate control (defined by cortisol concentration after ACTH stimulation > 9.1 μg/dL) in 200 of 211 (95%) dogs. During trilostane treatment, baseline cortisol concentrations between 1.3 and either 2.9 μg/dL or ≤ 50% of the pretreatment baseline cortisol concentration correctly predicted acceptable control of adrenal gland function in 147 of 168 (88%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of a baseline cortisol concentration collected 4 to 6 hours after trilostane administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism provided clinically useful information about control of adrenal gland function. Many dogs receiving trilostane may be adequately monitored without the expense and inconvenience of an ACTH stimulation test. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:801–805)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of and clinical features associated with incidental adrenal gland lesions (IAGLs) discovered during abdominal ultrasonography in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—151 dogs with an IAGL and 400 control dogs.

Procedures—Reports of ultrasonographic examinations of the abdomen of dogs performed during a 3.5-year period were reviewed. Adrenal glands were classified as having an IAGL if a nodule or mass was described or the width of either gland was ≥ 10 mm. For dogs with an IAGL, information regarding signalment, concurrent disorders, and outcome was obtained from the medical record. Findings were compared with those in a control population of 400 dogs examined during the same period.

Results—An IAGL was detected in 151 of 3,748 (4%) dogs. Dogs with an IAGL were significantly older (median age, 11.25 years) and heavier (median body weight, 21 kg [46.2 lb]) than the control population (median age, 9.5 years; median body weight, 14 kg [30.8 lb]). Malignant tumors were reported in 6 of 20 (30%) dogs that underwent adrenal glandectomy or necropsy and had a maximum IAGL dimension that ranged from 20 to 46 mm; benign lesions all had a maximum dimension < 20 mm. Various coincidental conditions were reported in dogs with an IAGL, including nonadrenal gland malignant neoplasia in 43 (28.5%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IAGLs were more likely in dogs ≥ 9 years of age. On the basis of this small data set, malignancy should be suspected for IAGLs ≥ 20 mm in maximum dimension.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 2-year-old 24-kg (53-lb) spayed female American Staffordshire Terrier was referred to the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for potential pacemaker placement. Six days prior, the dog began to vomit persistently and became lethargic, anorectic, and hypodipsic. Results of a CBC (performed at the referring veterinary clinic) were within reference ranges. An abbreviated serum biochemical profile performed at the referring clinic revealed high BUN (66.4 mg/dL; reference range, 9.0 to 29.0 mg/dL) and creatinine (1.8 mg/dL; reference range, 0.4 to 1.4 mg/dL) concentrations; serum electrolyte concentrations were not measured. The referring veterinarian had administered a dose of barium contrast

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the likelihood and outcome of esophageal perforation secondary to an esophageal foreign body (EFB) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective observational study.

ANIMALS 125 dogs evaluated for EFB at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 2005 through December 2013.

PROCEDURES Data were retrieved from the medical record of each dog regarding variables hypothesized to be associated with esophageal perforation, whether esophageal perforation was present, and survival to hospital discharge. Variables were examined for associations with various outcomes.

RESULTS Bones (55/125 [44%]) and fishhooks (37/125 [30%]) were the most common types of EFBs. Fifteen (12%) dogs had an esophageal perforation (10 with a fishhook EFB and 5 with a bone EFB). No association was identified between dog body weight and esophageal perforation. Esophageal perforation was more likely in dogs with a fishhook EFB (10/37 [27%]) versus other EFBs (5/88 [6%]; OR, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 9.6). Median interval from fishhook or bone ingestion to initial evaluation was significantly longer for dogs with (12 and 96 hours, respectively) versus without (1 and 24 hours, respectively) perforation. Thirteen of 15 (87%) dogs with esophageal perforation survived to hospital discharge, including all 10 dogs with perforation secondary to fishhook ingestion. Eight survivors with esophageal perforation required no surgical intervention.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Esophageal perforation was uncommon in the evaluated dogs with an EFB, and no surgical intervention was required for a large proportion of them. Fishhooks and delay between EFB ingestion and initial evaluation were risk factors for perforation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) of canine urine.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

SAMPLE 60 mL of pooled urine from 4 dogs, divided into six 10-mL aliquots.

PROCEDURES Urine aliquots were spiked with bacteria from 1 of 6 independent Escherichia coli cultures to achieve a target bacterial concentration of 105 CFUs/mL. One milliliter from each aliquot was transferred into 5 silicone-coated clot tubes (SCTs) and 5 urine transport tubes (UTTs). Samples were stored at 4°C (39°F) and 25°C (77°F) for 0, 8, and 24 hours, and then standard QBCs were performed.

RESULTS Median bacterial concentration for urine samples stored in a UTT for 24 hours at 4°C was lower than that for samples stored in an SCT under the same conditions. Conversely, a substantial decrease in median bacterial concentration was identified for samples stored for 24 hours in an SCT at 25°C, compared with the median concentration for samples stored in a UTT under the same conditions. Median bacterial concentration in samples stored in an SCT at 25°C for 24 hours (275 CFUs/mL) was less than the cutoff typically used to define clinically important bacteriuria by use of urine samples obtained via cystocentesis (ie, > 1,000 CFUs/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine urine samples submitted for immediate QBC should be transported in plain sterile tubes such as SCTs. When prolonged (24-hour) storage at room temperature is anticipated, urine samples should be transported in UTTs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs (median age, 9 years; median body weight, 31 kg [68.2 lb]) with undefined nasal masses were examined after undergoing CT of the head and nasal biopsy via a rostral rhinoscopic or unaided (blind) approach because histologic results for collected biopsy specimens (inflammatory, necrotic, or hemorrhagic disease) suggested the specimens were nonrepresentative of the underlying disease process identified via CT (aggressive or malignant disease).

CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical signs at the time dogs were evaluated included open-mouth breathing, sneezing, or unilateral epistaxis. Histologic findings pertaining to the original biopsy specimens were suggestive of benign processes such as inflammation. In an attempt to obtain better representative specimens, a frameless CT-guided stereotactic biopsy system (CTSBS) was used to collect additional biopsy specimens from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of the dogs. The second set of biopsy specimens was histologically evaluated.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens collected via the CTSBS revealed results suggestive of malignant neoplasia (specifically, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma) for 3 dogs, mild mixed-cell inflammation for 1 dog, and hamartoma for 1 dog. No complications were reported. These findings resulted in a change in treatment recommendations for 3 dogs and confirmed that no additional treatment was required for 1 dog (with hamartoma). For the remaining dog, in which CT findings and clinical history were strongly suggestive of neoplasia, the final diagnosis was rhinitis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Biopsy specimens were safely collected from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of dogs by use of a frameless CTSBS, allowing a definitive diagnosis that was unachievable with other biopsy approaches.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with multicentric lymphoma and to investigate any relationship between serum cobalamin concentration and disease outcome.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—58 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedures—Serum cobalamin concentrations were measured in 58 dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Clinical signs, stage, and immunophenotype for dogs with hypocobalaminemia were compared with those for dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations above the lower end of the reference range. Survival times for dogs undergoing a cyclic multidrug chemotherapy protocol (n = 53) were similarly compared. Serum cobalamin concentrations for treated dogs that died or were euthanized before day 60 were compared with those of dogs still alive at day 60.

Results—Serum cobalamin concentrations ranged from < 150 to 1,813 ng/L, with a median concentration of 401 ng/L. Nine of the 58 (16%) dogs had hypocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentration < 252 ng/L). Three of 9 dogs with hypocobalaminemia survived to at least day 60, compared with 40 of 44 (91%) dogs without hypocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentration ≥ 252 ng/L). Ten (10/53 [19%]) dogs undergoing a cyclic multidrug chemotherapy protocol died before day 60, and the median serum cobalamin concentration for these dogs (232 ng/L) was significantly lower than for those still alive at the end point of the study (556 ng/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypocobalaminemia was relatively uncommon in this population of dogs with multicentric lymphoma, but was associated with a poor outcome. Serum cobalamin concentrations may provide prognostic information in dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association