OBJECTIVE To characterize signalment, clinical signs, reproductive history, surgical management, and outcomes of beef cattle undergoing cesarean section because of dystocia at a veterinary teaching hospital.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 173 beef cattle admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital from 2001 through 2010 that underwent cesarean section because of dystocia.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and information collected on cattle signalment; reproductive history; cause of dystocia; anesthetic protocol; surgical management; number, sex, and body weight of calves delivered (alive or dead); perioperative treatment; duration of hospitalization; and discharge status. A questionnaire regarding postoperative fertility was mailed to all owners, and owners who did not respond were contacted via telephone.
RESULTS Overall mortality rate for calves was high, with 37.6% (62/165) of calves delivered dead or dying ≤ 24 hours after cesarean section. Mortality rate was higher for female versus male calves and for calves from dams with signs of labor for ≥ 3 hours versus < 3 hours before hospital admission. Overall mortality rate for dams was low, with only 10 of 161 (6.2%) dams failing to survive for ≥ 21 days after hospital discharge. Postoperative fertility rate was acceptable, with 75% (44/59) of dams that were rebred after cesarean section giving birth to ≥ 1 live calf.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cesarean section was a clinically useful method for resolving dystocia in beef cattle, providing a high dam survival rate and an acceptable postoperative fertility rate. Beef cattle producers should seek veterinary assistance whenever clinical signs of dystocia are noticed, preferably within 6 hours after onset of parturition.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate reproductive performance and productive longevity of dairy cows treated for left displaced abomasum (LDA) with 1 of 2 surgical techniques (omentopexy vs pyloro-omentopexy).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 87 Holstein cows that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy for LDA during a 5-year period.
PROCEDURES For each cow with LDA, the most recent date of calving, age at time of surgery, and surgical procedure were recorded. Dairy records of cows treated for LDA in the 5-year period were reviewed to determine their reproductive performance. Records available for up to 4 years after the last surgery (ie, when all treated cows had left the herd) were reviewed to determine cull dates and reasons for treated and untreated cows in the herd.
RESULTS Of the 87 cows with LDA, 58 underwent pyloro-omentopexy and 29 underwent omentopexy. Cows in the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ in age. Fifty-six cows completed > 1 subsequent lactation cycle after surgery. The median time that cows with LDA remained in the herd was 566 days (range, 24 to 1,838 days); the times for the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ. For treated and untreated cows, cull rates for reproductive failure or other problems were similar. Four (14%) omentopexy–treated cows and no pyloro-omentopexy–treated cows had a reoccurrence of LDA.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that cows with LDA that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy had similar cull rates and reasons as unaffected herd mates over their productive time in the herd. Between the 2 treatment groups, only the LDA reoccurrence rate differed.
To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.
47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.
Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.
Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.
OBJECTIVE To report surgical and long-term postoperative outcomes of bulls undergoing surgical occlusion of the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) by acrylic injection and epididymectomy with or without penile fixation as preparation for use in estrus detection.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned bulls.
PROCEDURES Medical records of bulls that underwent CCP occlusion between December 2002 and March 2016 were identified. Signalment, surgical data, and reported complications were recorded. Long-term (> 6 months after surgery) follow-up data were obtained from medical records or by telephone interview of bull owners with a questionnaire focused on postoperative outcome, use of the bull for estrus detection, and overall satisfaction with the procedure.
RESULTS Intraoperative complications included difficulty isolating the penis, polymerization of the acrylic prior to injection, incomplete anesthesia of the surgical site, and fecal contamination of the site. Deposition of acrylic in an improper location led to urethral obstruction and euthanasia of 1 bull; another developed an abscess that was treated successfully. One bull was euthanized because of orchitis. Most (15/18) bulls were used for estrus detection (mean duration, 17.9 months). Libido was considered good or very good for 14 of 15 bulls; 1 was culled for loss of libido after 14 months. Ten of 12 bulls were reportedly unable to protrude the penis; 2 had or developed partial protrusion ability. Overall client satisfaction was high.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this population of healthy young bulls, CCP occlusion was generally well tolerated. Most bulls that underwent CCP occlusion (and epididymectomy with or without penile fixation) had adequate libido, and none were reported able to achieve intromission.
Objective—To determine clinical and radiographic
findings, treatment, and outcome for llamas with
Procedure—Medical records of llamas admitted
between 1993 and 1998 because of long-bone fractures
were reviewed. Data collected included age,
sex, type of fracture, method of fracture repair, and
postoperative complications. The Fisher exact test
was used to compare age and sex of the llamas with
long-bone fractures with those of the hospital population
of llamas. All owners were contacted by telephone
to determine perceived postoperative problems
and whether the llamas were able to perform as
Results—Mean age was 160.8 days (range, 23 to 365
days). There was 1 male and 5 females. Fractures
were more likely to occur in young llamas (≤ 1 year
old) than in adults. Five of the fractures were attributed
to traumatic episodes. Long bones affected
included the tibia (n = 2), radius (2), femur (1), and
humerus (1). Internal fixation with lag screws, plating,
or both was performed on fractures of all llamas
except 1; that llama was treated by use of confinement
to a stall. None of the llamas had intraoperative
complications, but postoperative complications were
reported in 2 llamas. All fractures healed eventually,
and clients were pleased with outcomes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-bone
fractures in llamas are uncommon. Several types of
long bone fractures can be successfully repaired by
use of internal fixation, resulting in few complications
and minimal convalescent time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc