Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 1 of 1 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ashley R. Schick x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search



To evaluate the validity of the double two-thirds rule for a diagnosis of splenic hemangiosarcoma in dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured splenic mass.


Systematic literature review.


3 databases (PubMed, CAB abstracts, and World of Science) were searched in November 2020. Articles were included if data on dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a splenic mass were included and subsequent pathologic diagnosis could be determined.


In total, 2,390 unique articles were identified, with 66 articles meeting the criteria for full-text review and 14 articles included for analysis. A total of 1,150 dogs were evaluated, with 73.0% (840/1,150) of dogs being diagnosed with a malignant splenic lesion and 27.0% (310/1,150) being diagnosed with a benign splenic lesion. Of the malignancies, 87.3% (733/840) were hemangiosarcoma. Levels of evidence were low, and bias was high as most included studies were retrospective case series.


The double two-thirds rule should be refined when evaluating dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum from a ruptured splenic mass, with more dogs being diagnosed with a malignancy and hemangiosarcoma specifically than the double two-thirds rule indicates. These findings may be useful in an emergency setting to guide owners on potential diagnoses for dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured splenic mass. However, there remains a portion of these dogs with benign conditions and nonhemangiosarcoma malignancies that may have a good long-term prognosis compared to dogs with hemangiosarcoma. Studies with higher levels of evidence, lower risks of bias, and large case numbers are needed in the literature.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association