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  • Author or Editor: Ashley M. Zehnder x
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OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of treatment for oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in avian species.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 87 client-owned birds of various species with histologically confirmed SCC of the skin or oral cavity.

PROCEDURES Clinicians entered case information through an online survey tool. Data were collected regarding patient signalment, concurrent conditions, treatments, adverse effects, and clinical outcomes. Relationships were examined between complete excision and partial or complete response. Survival analysis was performed to compare outcomes among groupings of therapeutic approaches.

RESULTS Only 7 of 64 (11%) birds for which full outcome data were available had complete remission of SCC; 53 (83%) had progressive disease, were euthanized, or died of the disease. The unadjusted OR for partial or complete response following complete tumor excision (vs other treatment approaches) was 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 25.8). Risk of death was 62% lower (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.77) for birds that underwent complete excision versus conservative treatment. Median survival time from initial evaluation for birds receiving complete excision was 628 days (95% CI, 210 to 1,008 days), compared with 171 days (95% CI, 89 to 286 days) for birds receiving monitoring with or without conservative treatment. Birds receiving any other additional treatment had a median survival time of 357 days (95% CI, 143 to 562 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For birds with SCC, complete excision was the only treatment approach significantly associated with complete or partial response and increased survival time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To optimize the use of CT-guided modeling for the calculation of body surface area (BSA) in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Animals—12 domestic rabbits.

Procedures—Adult rabbits (body weight, 1 to > 4 kg) that were client-owned animals undergoing CT for disease diagnosis or deceased laboratory animals donated from other research projects were scanned with a CT scanner. Images were transferred to a radiation therapy planning software program. Image slices were captured as contiguous slices at 100 kVp and 100 mA and processed to 0.1-cm-thick sections. The length of each contoured slice was summed to calculate a final BSA measurement. Nonlinear regression analysis was then used to derive an equation for the calculation of BSA in rabbits.

Results—The constant calculated by use of this method was 9.9 (range, 9.59 to 10). The R2 for the goodness of fit was 0.9332. The equation that best described BSA as a function of body weight for domestic rabbits with this method was as follows: BSA = (9.9 × [body weight {in grams}]2/3)/10,000.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BSA calculated via the CT-guided method yielded results similar to those obtained with equations for other similarly sized mammals and verified the use of such equations for rabbits. Additionally, this technique can be used for species that lack equations for the accurate calculation of BSA.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research