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  • Author or Editor: Ashley A. Smith x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a risk prediction model for factors associated with an SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 3,200 in horses after naturally occurring outbreaks of Streptococcus equi subsp equi infection and to validate this model.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 245 horses: 57 horses involved in strangles outbreaks (case horses) and 188 healthy horses (control horses).

PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from the 57 cases over a 27.5-month period after the start of outbreaks; serum samples were obtained once from the 188 controls. A Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to assess potential risk factors associated with an antibody titer ≥ 3,200 in the case horses. A cutoff probability for an SeM-specific titer ≥ 3,200 was determined, and the model was externally validated in the control horses. Only variables with a 95% credibility interval that did not overlap with a value of 1 were considered significant.

RESULTS 9 of 57 (6%) case horses had at least 1 titer ≥ 3,200, and 7 of 188 (3.7%) of control horses had a titer ≥ 3,200. The following variables were found to be significantly associated with a titer ≥ 3,200 in cases: farm size > 20 horses (OR, 0.11), history of clinically evident disease (OR, 7.92), and male sex (OR, 0.11). The model had 100% sensitivity but only 24% specificity when applied to the 188 control horses (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.62.)

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although the Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression model developed in this study did not perform well, it may prove useful as an initial screening tool prior to vaccination. We suggest that SeM-specific antibody titer be measured prior to vaccination when our model predicts a titer ≥ 3,200.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate survival time for dogs with small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIACA) following tumor excision with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and to identify factors associated with survival time.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with a nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned dogs with surgically resected, histologically diagnosed SIACA.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding dog signalment; clinical signs; physical examination findings; PCV; serum total solids concentration; diagnostic imaging results; tumor size, location, and histologic characteristics (serosal extension, lymphatic invasion, surgical margins, and lymph node metastasis); type of adjuvant chemotherapy; NSAID administration; and survival time. Variables were assessed for associations with survival time and hazard rate via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

RESULTS Overall median survival time for dogs with SIACA following tumor excision was 544 days (95% confidence interval, 369 to 719 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 60% and 36%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only age category was an independent predictor of survival over the follow-up period. Dogs < 8 years of age had a significantly longer median survival time (1,193 days) than dogs ≥ 8 years (488 days). Lymph node metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy, NSAID administration, and other assessed variables were not associated with survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that SIACA in dogs carries a fair prognosis following excision, even when lymph node metastasis is present. Prospective studies are warranted to better characterize the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy or NSAID administration on survival time.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association