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Abstract

Objective—To identify hemostatic imbalances indicative of an increased risk of intra-abdominal adhesion formation in foals versus adult horses.

Animals—Horses with colic undergoing exploratory laparotomy or abdominocentesis as part of a clinical examination (n = 16 foals ≤ 6 months of age and 19 adults ≥ 5 years of age) and horses without colic undergoing herniorrhaphy (15 foals) or euthanasia for noninflammatory and nongastrointestinal disease (10 foals and 20 adults).

Procedures—Paired abdominal fluid and blood samples were collected from each horse into buffered sodium citrate and centrifuged immediately after collection. Supernatants were stored at −80°C, then thawed for measurement of fibrinogen concentration, plasminogen activity, antiplasmin activity, and D-dimer concentration. Supernatant analyte concentrations or activities were compared within age group (foals with and without colic vs adults with and without colic) and within disease status (foals and adults without colic vs foals and adults with colic).

Results—All analyte concentrations or activities in abdominal fluid samples were significantly lower in the noncolic groups than in the colic groups, and none differed between foal and adult groups. Several plasma analyte values differed by disease status and age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The risk of intra-abdominal adhesion formation in the foals in this study did not appear to be attributable to differences in intra-abdominal hemostasis between adult horses and foals. Strategies for initial medical and surgical management of colic in adult horses may be applicable to foals with similar disorders.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the platelet activation response before and after treatment with clopidogrel in horses.

Animals—12 healthy adult mares.

Procedures—In a masked study, horses (6/group) were randomly allocated to alternately receive placebo or clopidogrel via nasogastric tube at a loading dose of 4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg every 24 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 72 hours after initiation of treatment for ADP- and collagen-induced light transmission aggregometry; determination of closure time in collagen-ADP cartridges; modified thrombelastography for comparison of maximal amplitudes generated by kaolin, reptilase, and reptilase plus ADP activation; and flow cytometric tests to detect platelet fibrinogen binding, P-selectin expression, and phosphatidylserine externalization before and after ex vivo stimulation with thrombin, convulxin, thrombin with convulxin, and calcium ionophore.

Results—Clopidogrel administration induced a significant decrease in mean aggregation response to 5μM and 10μM ADP stimulation; however, 2 horses had resistance to clopidogrel's inhibitory action. Significant differences after clopidogrel treatment were not found in any other tests of platelet function.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assays using commercially available reagents were configured to measure different variables of the platelet activation response; however, clopidogrel's platelet inhibitory action was only detected by ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry. Results also suggested that horses, like humans, have interindividual variability in response to clopidogrel that may influence the drug's clinical efficacy as an antiplatelet agent.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of nonthermal plasma on Staphylococcus aureus, fibroblasts in monolayer culture, and clean and contaminated skin explants.

Sample Population—Normal skin from euthanized horses.

ProceduresS aureus organisms were plated and treated with nonthermal plasma followed by bacterial culture to assess viability. Fibroblasts in monolayer culture and the epidermal and dermal surfaces of clean and S aureus–contaminated skin explants were treated. The effects of distance and duration on the response to treatment were compared.

Results—Compared with controls, treatment with nonthermal plasma resulted in significantly decreased bacterial growth and significantly inhibited survival of fibroblasts in monolayer culture. When epidermal and dermal surfaces of skin explants were treated, there was no effect on production of normal fibroblasts during explant culture, except when extended exposure times of ≥ 2 minutes were used. Treatment with nonthermal plasma resulted in significantly lower bacterial counts after 24 hours of culture of S aureus–contaminated epidermis but not of dermis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonthermal plasma resulted in bacterial decontamination of agar and epithelium; negative effects on fibroblasts in monolayer; and no negative effects on skin explants, except at long exposure times. Use of nonthermal plasma appears safe for treatment of epithelialized surfaces, may be safe for granulating wounds, and results in decontamination of S aureus. Investigations on the effects that nonthermal plasma may have on patient tissues are indicated with a clinically applicable delivery device.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of resveratrol administration in performance horses with lameness localized to the distal tarsal joints.

DESIGN Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 45 client-owned horses with lameness localized to the distal tarsal joints.

PROCEDURES All horses received injections of triamcinolone acetonide in the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints of both hind limbs. A placebo or a supplement containing resveratrol was fed twice daily by owners for 4 months. Primary outcomes were horse performance as determined by rider opinion (better, worse, or the same) and change in lameness severity from the enrollment examination.

RESULTS Complete data were obtained for 21 horses that received resveratrol and 20 that received the placebo. Percentage of riders who reported that the horse's performance was better, compared with worse or the same, was significantly higher for the resveratrol group than for the placebo group after 2 (20/21 [95%] vs 14/20 [70%]) and 4 (18/21 [86%] vs 10/20 [50%]) months. The change in A1:A2 ratio between the enrollment and 4-month recheck examinations was significantly better for horses in the resveratrol versus placebo group. However, subjective lameness scores and degree of asymmetry of pelvis movement did not differ between groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that in performance horses with lameness localized to the distal tarsal joints, injection of triamcinolone in the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints of both hind limbs followed by oral supplementation with resveratrol for 4 months resulted in reduced lameness, compared with triamcinolone injection and supplementation with a placebo.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the efficacy and safety of a low-volume, single-catheter, continuous peripheral neural blockade (CPNB) technique to locally deliver bupivacaine to alleviate signs of severe forelimb pain resulting from experimentally induced tendonitis in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled experimental trial.

Sample—14 horses and 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers.

Procedures—Horses underwent collagenase-induced superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the midmetacarpal region of 1 forelimb. To deliver analgesia, a closed-tip catheter was placed from lateral to medial, approximately 12 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone, between the suspensory ligament and accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon. Success of catheter placement and anesthetic delivery was documented ex vivo in 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers. Effective analgesia in affected forelimbs of horses from continuous (n = 7) versus intermittent (7) local anesthetic delivery (intermittent peripheral neural blockade; IPNB) was compared over a 3-day period.

Results—Horses that received CPNB in the affected forelimb were less lame than horses that received IPNB. A lower proportion of CPNB-treated horses had behavioral and physiologic signs of pain, compared with IPNB-treated horses. Neither technique completely blocked the sensation of pain or resulted in swelling in the distal portion of the forelimb, vasodilation, or an increase in lameness. After removal, Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 1 catheter tip.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For short-term treatment, CPNB was more effective than IPNB for reduction in signs of severe pain in the distal aspect of the forelimb of horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effectiveness of a digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT) for preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

SAMPLE

42 third-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students were randomly assigned to 3 instructional methods: independent study (ie, 45 minutes to read a highlighted textbook chapter), lecture (ie, 45-minute lecture by a faculty member), or digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT; ie, 45-minute narrated, interactive module). Written and practical tests were administered after each instruction session. For the practical test, each student was required to obtain a series of ultrasound images of a live horse, and images were later scored for quality by an individual unaware of the instructional method used.

RESULTS

Higher-quality ultrasound images were obtained by veterinary students who had reviewed the DIMT rather than the analogous information in textbook chapters. No difference in scores was identified between students in the lecture group and those in the DIMT group. Students’ perceptions suggested that practical instruction facilitated by clinicians was a key component of learning how to perform ultrasonography in horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported the use of DIMTs in preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel on clinical and clinicopathologic variables in healthy horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia.

Animals—12 adult mares.

Procedures—Horses were assigned with a randomization procedure to receive clopidogrel (4 mg/kg, once, then 2 mg/kg, q 24 h; n = 6) or a placebo (6) through a nasogastric tube. After 72 hours of treatment, horses received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 ng/kg, IV). Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, CBC variables, plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, and measures of platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and closure times, thrombelastography variables, and results of flow cytometric detection of platelet membrane P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and microparticles) were determined at various times before and after LPS administration by investigators unaware of the treatment groups. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—4 of 6 clopidogrel-treated horses had significant decreases in ADP-induced platelet aggregation before and after LPS administration. Heart rate increased significantly after LPS administration only for the placebo group. No significant differences were detected between groups for CBC variables, closure time, and plasma concentration of fibrinogen or serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, and no clinically relevant differences were detected for other hemostatic variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, administration of LPS did not induce platelet hyperreactivity in horses on the basis of measures of platelet adhesion, aggregation, degranulation, and procoagulant activity. Administration of clopidogrel was associated with variable platelet antiaggregatory activity and attenuated some clinical signs of endotoxemia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research