Objective—To detect, isolate, and characterize feline
stromelysin-1 (ie, matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-3)
in naturally developing tumors in cats.
Sample Population—31 tissue samples obtained
from primary tumors and 6 samples of normal tissues
Procedure—Biopsy specimens were obtained from
primary tumors. Primers were designed on the basis
of known sequences. The sequence of stromelysin-
1 was cloned and analyzed. An additional primer set
was used as a screening tool. Samples were
assayed in duplicate or triplicate, when possible.
Data obtained were analyzed for differences in
expression of stromelysin-1 with regard to overall
survival among cats of various sex, age, and disease
Results—A 1,181-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was
amplified. The open reading frame encoded 393 amino
acids. This amino acid sequence shared 70% to 85%
sequence homology with sequences of other species.
In addition, samples were screened for stromelysin-1.
Of the 31 tumor samples tested, 16 (51.6%) had positive
results for expression of stromelysin-1. Total RNA
expression was detected in a diverse group of tumor
types. Prognostic factors associated with a shorter
duration of survival included evidence of metastasis and
metastasis associated with expression of stromelysin-1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feline
stromelysin-1 contains all the conserved regions typically
found in members of the MMP family. Activity of
stromelysin-1 has been implicated in a wide number
of physiologic and pathologic processes. Identification
of this gene may lead to the development of useful
reagents to assist with diagnosis and management of
neoplastic diseases in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2004;
Objective—To determine the prevalence of systemic
hypertension in cats with diabetes mellitus and establish
ranges for echocardiographic variables in diabetic
Animals—14 cats with diabetes mellitus and 19
healthy control cats.
Procedure—Systolic blood pressure was measured
indirectly with a noninvasive Doppler technique.
Ophthalmic and echocardiographic examinations
were performed, and urine protein concentration was
measured. Cats were considered to have hypertension
if they had systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg
and at least 1 other clinical abnormality typically associated
with hypertension (eg, hypertensive retinopathy,
left ventricular hypertrophy, or proteinuria).
Results—None of the diabetic or control cats had
systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg. One diabetic
cat had left ventricular hypertrophy, but systolic blood
pressure was 174 mm Hg. None of the cats had evidence
of hypertensive retinopathy or proteinuria.
Mean values for echocardiographic variables for the
diabetic cats were not significantly different from published
values for healthy cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that hypertension does not occur or occurs in
only a small percentage of cats with diabetes mellitus.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:198–201)
Objective—To isolate and characterize the cDNA
sequence of canine stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase
[MMP]-3), screen various naturally developing
primary tumors of dogs, and assess the effect of
stromelysin-1 on survival of dogs with cancer.
Sample Population—3 canine cell lines and biopsy
specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs.
Procedure—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens
of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs at the
University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were
used in the study. Primer sets based on human
stromelysin-1 and consensus sequences were
designed for expression, screening, and isolation. Two
additional primer sets were designed for screening.
Samples were assayed at least in duplicate. Data
were analyzed for differences in expression of
stromelysin-1 on the basis of sex, age, metastasis,
malignant versus nonmalignant tissue origin, and
duration of patient survival.
Results—A 1,479-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was
amplified from established canine cell lines. The open
reading frame encoded a protein consisting of 478
amino acids. This sequence was 70% to 88% homologous
with stromelysin-1 of other species at the
amino acid level. Fifty-four samples were screened
for stromelysin-1. Of these, 34 (63%) had positive
results and 20 (37%) had negative results for expression.
Stromelysin-1 and metastasis were associated
with a poor prognosis for survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stromelysin-1
is a potential activator of other members of the MMP
family. Additional studies are needed to investigate
the relationship between stromelysin-1 production
and aggressive biological behavior of tumors in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1526–1535)
Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentrations for screening dogs for the presence of osteosarcoma.
Sample Population—32 client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma (27 dogs with osteosarcoma of the appendicular skeleton and 5 dogs with osteosarcoma of the axial skeleton) and 44 non–tumor-bearing control dogs.
Procedures—Serum was obtained from blood samples collected from dogs with osteosarcoma and from clinically normal dogs. The serum ICTP concentration was determined by use of a commercially available radioimmunoassay for ICTP.
Results—Mean ± SD serum ICTP concentration in the tumor-bearing dogs was 7.32 ± 2.88 ng/mL, and in clinically normal dogs, it was 6.77 ± 2.31 ng/mL; values did not differ significantly. Mean serum ICTP concentration in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma, compared with that of clinically normal dogs, was not significantly different. Mean serum ICTP concentration in dogs with axial skeletal tumor location was 10.82 ± 2.31 ng/mL, compared with a value of 6.73 ± 2.28 ng/mL in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the results of this study, serum ICTP concentrations are not a clinically useful screening tool for the detection of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. Despite the observation that serum ICTP concentration was higher in dogs with axial osteosarcoma than in clinically normal dogs, serum ICTP concentration determination is not a suitable screening test for osteosarcoma.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of an osteoconductive
resorbable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) on
the holding power of bone screws in canine pelvises
and to compare the effect with that for polymethylmethacrylate
Sample Population—35 pelvises obtained from
Procedure—Each pelvis was sectioned longitudinally.
Within each pair of hemipelvises, one 4.0-mm cancellous
screw was placed in the sacroiliac (SI) region and
another in the iliac body. Similar regions on the contralateral-
matched hemipelvis were assigned 1 of 3 augmentation
techniques (CPC-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous
screws, PMMA-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous
screws, and CPC-augmented 3.5-mm cortical screws).
Pullout force was compared between matched screws
and between treatment groups prior to examination of
cross sections for evaluation of cement filling and noncortical
bone-to-cortical bone ratio.
Results—CPC and PMMA augmentation significantly
increased pullout force of 4.0-mm screws inserted in
the SI region by 19.5% and 33.2%, respectively, and
CPC augmentation significantly increased pullout force
of 4.0-mm cancellous screws inserted in the iliac body
by 21.2%. There was no difference in the mean percentage
augmentation between treatment groups at
either location. Cement filling was superior in noncortical
bone, compared with filling for cortical bone.
Noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratio was significantly
greater in the sacrum (6.1:1) than the ilium (1.3:1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CPC and
PMMA improve the ex vivo holding strength of
4.0-mm cancellous screws in the SI and iliac body
regions and SI region, respectively. Cement augmentation
may be more effective in areas with greater
noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratios. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated
with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial
susceptibilities of the isolates.
Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.
Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens
submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined
and the number of isolations of E coli was determined.
For these cases, records were further examined
with respect to body system involvement, sex,
concurrent infection with other species of bacteria,
and antimicrobial susceptibility.
Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from
the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the
ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from
the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ
systems) were identified. There was a significantly
higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens
from spayed females than from sexually intact
females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in
pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E
coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%),
enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric
E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract.
Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin
have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates.
For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility
to commonly used antimicrobial agents has
remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)