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  • Author or Editor: Arthur M. Siegel x
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Abstract

Objective—To detect, isolate, and characterize feline stromelysin-1 (ie, matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-3) in naturally developing tumors in cats.

Sample Population—31 tissue samples obtained from primary tumors and 6 samples of normal tissues from cats.

Procedure—Biopsy specimens were obtained from primary tumors. Primers were designed on the basis of known sequences. The sequence of stromelysin- 1 was cloned and analyzed. An additional primer set was used as a screening tool. Samples were assayed in duplicate or triplicate, when possible. Data obtained were analyzed for differences in expression of stromelysin-1 with regard to overall survival among cats of various sex, age, and disease status.

Results—A 1,181-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was amplified. The open reading frame encoded 393 amino acids. This amino acid sequence shared 70% to 85% sequence homology with sequences of other species. In addition, samples were screened for stromelysin-1. Of the 31 tumor samples tested, 16 (51.6%) had positive results for expression of stromelysin-1. Total RNA expression was detected in a diverse group of tumor types. Prognostic factors associated with a shorter duration of survival included evidence of metastasis and metastasis associated with expression of stromelysin-1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feline stromelysin-1 contains all the conserved regions typically found in members of the MMP family. Activity of stromelysin-1 has been implicated in a wide number of physiologic and pathologic processes. Identification of this gene may lead to the development of useful reagents to assist with diagnosis and management of neoplastic diseases in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:213–219)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension in cats with diabetes mellitus and establish ranges for echocardiographic variables in diabetic cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—14 cats with diabetes mellitus and 19 healthy control cats.

Procedure—Systolic blood pressure was measured indirectly with a noninvasive Doppler technique. Ophthalmic and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and urine protein concentration was measured. Cats were considered to have hypertension if they had systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg and at least 1 other clinical abnormality typically associated with hypertension (eg, hypertensive retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, or proteinuria).

Results—None of the diabetic or control cats had systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg. One diabetic cat had left ventricular hypertrophy, but systolic blood pressure was 174 mm Hg. None of the cats had evidence of hypertensive retinopathy or proteinuria. Mean values for echocardiographic variables for the diabetic cats were not significantly different from published values for healthy cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that hypertension does not occur or occurs in only a small percentage of cats with diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:198–201)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To isolate and characterize the cDNA sequence of canine stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-3), screen various naturally developing primary tumors of dogs, and assess the effect of stromelysin-1 on survival of dogs with cancer.

Sample Population—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs.

Procedure—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were used in the study. Primer sets based on human stromelysin-1 and consensus sequences were designed for expression, screening, and isolation. Two additional primer sets were designed for screening. Samples were assayed at least in duplicate. Data were analyzed for differences in expression of stromelysin-1 on the basis of sex, age, metastasis, malignant versus nonmalignant tissue origin, and duration of patient survival.

Results—A 1,479-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was amplified from established canine cell lines. The open reading frame encoded a protein consisting of 478 amino acids. This sequence was 70% to 88% homologous with stromelysin-1 of other species at the amino acid level. Fifty-four samples were screened for stromelysin-1. Of these, 34 (63%) had positive results and 20 (37%) had negative results for expression. Stromelysin-1 and metastasis were associated with a poor prognosis for survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stromelysin-1 is a potential activator of other members of the MMP family. Additional studies are needed to investigate the relationship between stromelysin-1 production and aggressive biological behavior of tumors in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1526–1535)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentrations for screening dogs for the presence of osteosarcoma.

Sample Population—32 client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma (27 dogs with osteosarcoma of the appendicular skeleton and 5 dogs with osteosarcoma of the axial skeleton) and 44 non–tumor-bearing control dogs.

Procedures—Serum was obtained from blood samples collected from dogs with osteosarcoma and from clinically normal dogs. The serum ICTP concentration was determined by use of a commercially available radioimmunoassay for ICTP.

Results—Mean ± SD serum ICTP concentration in the tumor-bearing dogs was 7.32 ± 2.88 ng/mL, and in clinically normal dogs, it was 6.77 ± 2.31 ng/mL; values did not differ significantly. Mean serum ICTP concentration in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma, compared with that of clinically normal dogs, was not significantly different. Mean serum ICTP concentration in dogs with axial skeletal tumor location was 10.82 ± 2.31 ng/mL, compared with a value of 6.73 ± 2.28 ng/mL in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the results of this study, serum ICTP concentrations are not a clinically useful screening tool for the detection of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. Despite the observation that serum ICTP concentration was higher in dogs with axial osteosarcoma than in clinically normal dogs, serum ICTP concentration determination is not a suitable screening test for osteosarcoma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of an osteoconductive resorbable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) on the holding power of bone screws in canine pelvises and to compare the effect with that for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).

Sample Population—35 pelvises obtained from canine cadavers.

Procedure—Each pelvis was sectioned longitudinally. Within each pair of hemipelvises, one 4.0-mm cancellous screw was placed in the sacroiliac (SI) region and another in the iliac body. Similar regions on the contralateral- matched hemipelvis were assigned 1 of 3 augmentation techniques (CPC-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous screws, PMMA-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous screws, and CPC-augmented 3.5-mm cortical screws). Pullout force was compared between matched screws and between treatment groups prior to examination of cross sections for evaluation of cement filling and noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratio.

Results—CPC and PMMA augmentation significantly increased pullout force of 4.0-mm screws inserted in the SI region by 19.5% and 33.2%, respectively, and CPC augmentation significantly increased pullout force of 4.0-mm cancellous screws inserted in the iliac body by 21.2%. There was no difference in the mean percentage augmentation between treatment groups at either location. Cement filling was superior in noncortical bone, compared with filling for cortical bone. Noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratio was significantly greater in the sacrum (6.1:1) than the ilium (1.3:1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CPC and PMMA improve the ex vivo holding strength of 4.0-mm cancellous screws in the SI and iliac body regions and SI region, respectively. Cement augmentation may be more effective in areas with greater noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratios. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1954–1960)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.

Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ systems) were identified. There was a significantly higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens from spayed females than from sexually intact females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%), enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and amikacin (85.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract. Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates. For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents has remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association