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  • Author or Editor: Arthur E. Dunham x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features and outcome in dogs and cats with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—103 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedures—Records of patients with OCD were analyzed for clinical features, medication used, extent of behavior modification, and outcome.

Results—Most dogs affected with OCD had been obtained from breeders. Male dogs significantly outnumbered females (2:1). Female cats outnumbered male cats by 2:1 in a small sample. Most affected dogs lived in households with 2 or more humans and other dogs or cats, and had some formal training. Client compliance with behavior modification was high. A combination of behavior modification and medication resulted in a large decrease in intensity and frequency of OCD in most animals. Clomipramine was significantly more efficacious for treatment in dogs than was amitriptyline. Only 1 dog and 1 cat were euthanatized because of OCD during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—OCD in dogs does not appear to be associated with lack of training, lack of household stimulation, or social confinement. In cats, OCD may be associated with environmental and social stress. Obsessive-compulsive disorder appears at the time of social maturity and may have sporadic and heritable forms. With appropriate treatment (consistent behavior modification and treatment with clomipramine), frequency and intensity of clinical signs in most dogs and cats may decrease by > 50%. Success appears to depend on client understanding and compliance and the reasonable expectation that OCD cannot be cured, but can be well controlled. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1445–1452)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of nonspecific clinical signs in dogs with separation anxiety, thunderstorm phobia, noise phobia, or any combination of these conditions and determine whether these conditions are associated in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—141 dogs.

Procedure—Diagnoses were established using specific criteria. Owners of dogs completed a questionnaire on how frequently their dogs exhibited destructive behavior, urination, defecation, vocalization, and salivation when the owners were absent and the types and frequency of reactions to thunderstorms, fireworks, and other noises.

Results—Associations of the 3 conditions and of various nonspecific clinical signs within and between diagnoses were nonrandom. The probability that a dog would have separation anxiety given that it had noise phobia was high (0.88) and approximately the same as the probability it would have separation anxiety given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.86). However, the probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.63) was higher than the probability that it would have thunderstorm phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.52). The probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.90) was not equivalent to the converse (0.76).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with any of these conditions should be screened for the others. Interactions among these conditions are important in the assessment and treatment of dogs with > 1 of these conditions. Responses to noise were different from those to thunderstorms, possibly because of the unpredictability and uncertainty of thunderstorms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:467–473)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) on the ECG of dogs treated for behavioral conditions and to examine correlations between ECG findings and serum concentrations of these medications.

Design—Repeated-measures study.

Animals—39 client-owned dogs with behavioral problems.

Procedure—Two groups of dogs with behavioral problems were evaluated. In group 1 (n = 20), ECG tracings were recorded before starting treatment with TCA and again after treatment for ≥ 1 month. Dogs in group 2 were already on long-term maintenance amounts of antianxiety medication when ECG tracings were recorded and serum concentrations of medications were obtained.

Results—Significant differences were not detected for dogs in group 1 between ECG values measured before and after TCA administration. The ECG values for dogs in group 2 did not differ significantly from the mean of group-1 dogs before receiving medication or from the reference range used at our facility. Duration of the P wave had a significant positive correlation with serum concentrations of clomipramine but significant negative correlation with serum concentrations of amitriptyline. The QT interval corrected for heart rate had a significant negative correlation with serum concentrations of amitriptyline.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Amitriptyline and clomipramine administered at standard dosages apparently do not cause ECG abnormalities in healthy dogs with behavioral problems. These medications should be used cautiously in dogs with conduction abnormalities, and clinicians should periodically monitor ECG and use good clinical judgment to weigh risks and benefits of medications for the safety of each dog. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1571–1575)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association