Procedure—Mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation
in whole blood incubated with and without various
concentrations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus,
sirolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA), or A771726 was
measured by use of [3H]thymidine incorporation. Drug
concentrations that resulted in a 50% inhibition of
mitogen-induced proliferation (IC50) were calculated.
Lymphocyte viability was determined by use of the trypan blue dye exclusion method.
Results—An obvious dose-response relationship for
the antiproliferative effects of each drug was detected.
Mean IC50 determined with concanavalin A was
46 nMfor cyclosporine, 9 nMfor tacrolimus, 12 nM
for sirolimus, 16 nM for MPA, and 30 mM for
A771726, whereas with pokeweed mitogen, mean
IC50 was 33 nM for cyclosporine, 5 nMfor tacrolimus,
15 nM for sirolimus, 14 nM for mycophenolic acid,
and 25 mM for A771726. Mitogen-stimulated and
nonstimulated lymphocytes remained viable, regardless
of drug evaluated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tacrolimus,
sirolimus, MPA, and A771726 inhibited in vitro mitogen-
stimulated proliferation of feline lymphocytes in a
dose-dependent manner. These novel immunosuppressive
drugs may be useful for management of
immune-mediated inflamMatory diseases and prevention
and treatment of rejection in cats that undergo
organ transplantation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Penicillin is the antimicrobial for which consultation is most frequently sought through FARAD and is one of the most commonly detected drug residues in tissue and milk. This article reviews studies related to extralabel penicillin administration and provides recommendations to assist veterinarians in preventing violative residues in tissue and milk.
Allergic reactions to foods containing residue concentrations of penicillin are rare and are almost always dermatologic reactions.1 There are, however, reports2,3 of anaphylactic reactions developing after consumption of food containing penicillin residues. Pasteurization only reduces penicillin residues approximately 10% to 20%,4 and penicillin can
Objective—To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of common respiratory tract pathogens from sheep and goats.
Sample Population—41 respiratory tract isolates from sheep and 36 isolates from goats.
Procedures—Disk diffusion assay was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, and tetracycline. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of florfenicol for these isolates were determined by use of the microbroth dilution technique.
Results—The most common isolates were Pasteurella multocida (n = 28) and Mannheimia haemolytica (39). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and florfenicol. Five percent (4/77) of isolates were resistant to tetracycline.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from sheep and goats to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in this study was high. Treatment of these species for bacterial respiratory tract disease is likely not complicated by antimicrobial resistance.
Objective—To develop a flow-limited, physiologicbased
pharmacokinetic model for use in estimating
concentrations of sulfamethazine after IV administration
Sample Population—4 published studies provided
physiologic values for organ weights, blood flows,
clearance, and tissue-to-blood partition coefficients,
and 3 published studies provided data on plasma and
other tissue compartments for model validation.
Procedure—For the parent compound, the model
included compartments for blood, adipose, muscle,
liver, and kidney tissue with an extra compartment
representing the remaining carcass. Compartments
for the N-acetyl metabolite included the liver and the
remaining body. The model was created and optimized
by use of computer software. Sensitivity
analysis was completed to evaluate the importance
of each constant on the whole model. The model was
validated and used to estimate a withhold interval
after an IV injection at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The withhold
interval was compared to the interval estimated
by the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank
Results—Specific tissue correlations for plasma, adipose,
muscle, kidney, and liver tissue compartments
were 0.93, 0.86, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively.
The model typically overpredicted concentrations at
early time points but had excellent accuracy at later
time points. The withhold interval estimated by use of
the model was 120 hours, compared with 100 hours
estimated by FARAD.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of this
model enabled accurate prediction of sulfamethazine
pharmacokinetics in swine and has applications for
food safety and prediction of drug residues in edible
tissues. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1686–1693)
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of
ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in
Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.
Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas
received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg)
IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood
samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1,
2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After
a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the
same dose via the reciprocal administration route,
and blood was collected in the same fashion.
Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via
high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly
different between the 2 administration routes.
Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly
higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the
SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There
were no significant differences between terminal halflives
(harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours;
harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and
mean areas under the curve measured to the last
time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC
route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid
equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL
for > 24 hours via both routes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested
dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas
for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5
mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)